vendredi 13 janvier 2017

Weekly Recap From the Expedition Lead Scientist, Week of Jan. 2, 2017











ISS - Expedition 50 Mission patch.

Jan. 13, 2017

International Space Station (ISS). Image Credit: NASA

(Highlights: Week of Jan. 2, 2017) - While preparation for a spacewalk was a primary focus of crew members, science continued aboard the International Space Station, including flames, miniature satellites and fine motor skills tests.

NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson tested components of an investigation that could lead to more efficient jet and rocket engines. The Elucidation of Flame Spread and Group Combustion Excitation Mechanism of Randomly distributed Droplet Clouds (Group Combustion) tests a theory that fuel sprays change from partial to group combustion as flames spread across clouds of droplets. On the space station, the position of flames and positions of liquid fuel droplets are measured along with temperature distribution as the flame spreads along a test lattice. Microgravity eliminates convection, which allows scientists to gather data points before the droplets and combustion products disperse.


Image above: NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough captured this image of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), which is studying cosmic ray particles and has collected data from more than 90 billion cosmic ray events in the five years since it was installed. Image Credit: NASA.

Rocket engines use spray combustion of liquid propellants, but the high speeds of the fuel and oxidizer as they move through the combustion chamber makes it virtually impossible to analyze the flames. JAXA’s (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Group Combustion investigation will help improve simulations used to predict the combustion behavior to assist in the development of advanced rocket engines. This information could also help develop cleaner, more energy-efficient engines for vehicles on Earth.

ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Thomas Pesquet and Russian cosmonaut Andrei Borisenko performed 11 test runs of the SPHERES Zero Robotics mini-satellites in advance of a competition scheduled for later in January. Student teams are challenged to design research for the station by writing programs for tasks the SPHERES satellites can accomplish that would be relevant to future space missions. The bowling-ball-sized satellites can be programmed to move about the space station cabin. SPHERES stands for Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites. A major outreach tool as well as scientific investigation, SPHERES Zero Robotics provides a unique and valuable opportunity for students interested in science, technology, engineering and mathematics -- STEM -- careers.


Image above: A sampling of the many cameras stowed on the International Space Station exhibits how much photography is a part of daily life in orbit, whether to capture important images of science experiments or stunning vistas of Earth below. Image Credit: NASA.

Pesquet and Whitson completed flight day 50 sessions for the Effects of Long-Duration Microgravity on Fine Motor Skills (Fine Motor Skills) investigation. Fine motor skills are crucial for successfully interacting with touch-based technologies, repairing sensitive equipment and a variety of other tasks. For NASA's Fine Motor Skills investigation, crew members perform a series of interactive tasks on a touchscreen tablet. The investigation is the first fine motor skills study to measure long-term microgravity exposure, different phases of microgravity adaptation, and sensorimotor recovery after returning to Earth gravity. The simple tasks developed for this investigation may have wide-reaching benefits for elderly patients, people with motor disorders or patients with brain injuries on Earth undergoing rehabilitation for conditions that impair fine motor control.


Image above: This image of the Glorioso Islands, located just off the northwest coast of Madagascar, was captured by an Expedition 50 crew member aboard the space station. Image Credit: NASA.

Crew members conducted other human research investigations this week, including Body Measures, Habitability, Fluid Shifts, Dose Tracker and Space Headaches.

Progress was made on other investigations, outreach activities, and facilities this week, including Education Payload Operations-Pesquet, ISS Ham Radio, Packed Bed Reactor Experiment (PBRE), and Manufacturing Device.

Related links:

Group Combustion: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1077.html

SPHERES Zero Robotics: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/690.html

Fine Motor Skills: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1767.html

Body Measures: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1070.html

Habitability: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1772.html

Fluid Shifts: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1257.html

Dose Tracker: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1933.html

Space Headaches: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/181.html

ISS Ham Radio: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/346.html

Packed Bed Reactor Experiment (PBRE): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1111.html

Manufacturing Device: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/2198.html

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Kristine Rainey/Vic Cooley, Lead Increment Scientist Expeditions 49 & 50.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

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