samedi 26 juin 2021

Scientists Use NASA Satellite Data to Track Ocean Microplastics From Space


NASA - Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) patch.

Jun 26, 2021

Scientists from the University of Michigan have developed an innovative way to use NASA satellite data to track the movement of tiny pieces of plastic in the ocean.

Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS). Image Credit: NASA

Microplastics form when plastic trash in the ocean breaks down from the sun’s rays and the motion of ocean waves. These small flecks of plastic are harmful to marine organisms and ecosystems. Microplastics can be carried hundreds or thousands of miles away from the source by ocean currents, making it difficult to track and remove them. Currently, the main source of information about the location of microplastics comes from fisher boat trawlers that use nets to catch plankton – and, unintentionally, microplastics.

Image above: An assortment of microplastic fragments, filaments, and fibers from the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre displayed in a disposable water bottle. Image Credits: Courtesy of Nicole Trenholm / Ocean Research Project.

The new technique relies on data from NASA’s Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), a constellation of eight small satellites that measures wind speeds above Earth’s oceans and provides information about the strength of hurricanes. CYGNSS also uses radar to measure ocean roughness, which is affected by several factors including wind speed and debris floating in the water.

Working backward, the team looked for places where the ocean was smoother than expected given the wind speed, which they thought could indicate the presence of microplastics. Then they compared those areas to observations and model predictions of where microplastics congregate in the ocean. The scientists found that microplastics tended to be present in smoother waters, demonstrating that CYGNSS data can be used as a tool to track ocean microplastic from space.

CYGNSS detection of global ocean microplastic concentration

The results were published online on June 9, 2021 in IEEE Transactions of Geoscience and Remote Sensing. The work was done by Chris Ruf, professor at the University of Michigan and principal investigator for CYGNSS, and undergraduate student Madeline C. Evans.

NASA’s Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS):

Images (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: NASA’s Earth Science News Team/By Sofie Bates.


Soyuz-2.1b launches Kosmos-2550



June 26, 2021

Soyuz-2.1b launches Kosmos-2550

A Soyuz-2.1b rocket launched the Kosmos-2550 (Pion-NKS No. 1) satellite from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, Russia, on 25 June 2021, at 19:50 UTC (22:50 local time).

Soyuz-2.1b launches Kosmos-2550

According to official sources, Kosmos-2550 was delivered into the target orbit, a stable telemetric connection has been established and maintained with the satellite, the onboard systems are operating normally. The Kosmos-2550 satellite was launched in the interest of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation.

Soyuz-2.1b launches Kosmos-2550

Two minutes after the launch, the Soyuz-2 launch vehicle was accepted for escort by ground control facilities at the Herman Titov Main Testing Space Center. At the estimated time, the satellite was launched into the target orbit and taken over for control of ground-based facilities of the Aerospace Forces.

Kosmos-2550 (Pion-NKS) satellite

A stable telemetric communication has been established and maintained with the spacecraft; its onboard systems are functioning in a normal mode. After being put into orbit, it was assigned the serial number "Kosmos-2550".

ROSCOSMOS Press Release:

Успешный пуск с космодрома Плесецк / Successful launch from Plesetsk cosmodrome

Images, Video, Text, Credits: Roscosmos/Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation/SciNews/Gunter's Space Page/ Aerospace/Roland Berga.


vendredi 25 juin 2021

Spacewalkers Complete Second Roll Out Solar Array Installation


EVA - Extra Vehicular Activities patch.

June 25, 2021

Image above: Astronauts Thomas Pesquet and Shane Kimbrough are conducting their fifth spacewalk together today. Their first two spacewalks together were during Expedition 50 on 2017. Image Credit: NASA.

NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Thomas Pesquet concluded their spacewalk at 2:37 p.m. EDT, after 6 hours and 45 minutes. In the ninth spacewalk of the year outside the International Space Station, the two astronauts installed and deployed a new ISS Roll-Out Solar Array (iROSA) on the far end of the left (port) side of the station’s backbone truss structure (P6).

Image above: The new ISS Roll-Out Solar Array (iROSA) were successfully deployed in a process that took about 10 minutes. Image Credit: NASA TV.

Kimbrough and Pesquet successfully removed the array from its position in the flight support equipment, maneuvered it into position, connected the electrical cables, and released it to extend the solar array to its fully deployed position at the 4B power channel. After deployment, Pesquet also retrieved an articulating portable foot restraint (APFR) to bring inside the space station.

During two spacewalks June 16 and 20, Kimbrough and Pesquet installed and deployed a new array on 2B power channel also on the port 6 truss. Both new solar arrays are providing good power generation. Each new iROSA is expected to produce more than 20 kilowatts of electricity.

Image above: The 60-foot-long roll out solar arrays were successfully deployed in a process that took about 10 minutes. Image Credit: NASA TV.

NASA is augmenting six of the eight existing power channels of the space station with new solar arrays to ensure a sufficient power supply is maintained for NASA’s exploration technology demonstrations for Artemis and beyond as well as utilization and commercialization.

This was the ninth spacewalk for Kimbrough, the fifth for Pesquet, and the fifth they conducted together. Kimbrough has now spent a total of 59 hours and 28 minutes spacewalking, and Pesquet’s total spacewalking time is 33 hours exactly.

Image above: Spacewalkers (from left) Shane Kimbrough and Thomas Pesquet work to install new roll out solar arrays on the International Space Station’s P-6 truss structure on June 16, 2021. Image Credit: NASA TV.

Space station crew members have conducted 241 spacewalks in support of assembly and maintenance of the orbiting laboratory. Spacewalkers have now spent a total of 63 days, 7 hours, and 41 minutes working outside the station.

NASA TV Live on Friday for Third Spacewalk in June

In November 2020, the International Space Station surpassed its 20-year milestone of continuous human presence, providing opportunities for unique research and technological demonstrations that help prepare for long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars and also improve life on Earth. In that time, 244 people from 19 countries have visited the orbiting laboratory that has hosted nearly 3,000 research investigations from researchers in 108 countries and areas.

Related links:

ISS Roll-Out Solar Array (iROSA):

International Space Station (ISS):

Images (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: NASA/Norah Moran/NASA TV.

Best regards,

Watch (and Hear) How NASA’s Perseverance Rover Took Its First Selfie


NASA - Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover logo.

Jun 25, 2021

Perseverance's Selfie with Ingenuity

Video above: Perseverance's selfie with Ingenuity is made up of 62 individual images stitched together once they are sent back to Earth; they were taken in sequence while the rover was looking at the helicopter, then again while it was looking at the WATSON camera. Video Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS.

The historic image of the rover beside the Mars Helicopter proved to be one of the most complex rover selfies ever taken. Video, with bonus audio, sheds light on the process.

Ever wondered how Mars rovers take a selfie? Color video from NASA’s Perseverance shows how the rover captured the historic April 6, 2021, image of itself beside the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter. As a bonus, the rover’s entry, descent, and landing microphone captured the sound of the arm’s motors whirring during the process.

Selfies allow engineers to check wear and tear on the rover. But they also inspire a new generation of space enthusiasts: Many rover team members can cite a favorite image that sparked their interest in NASA.

“I got into this because I saw a picture from Sojourner, NASA’s first Mars rover,” said Vandi Verma, Perseverance’s chief engineer for robotic operations at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. Verma worked as a driver for the agency’s Opportunity and Curiosity rovers, and she helped to create Curiosity’s first selfie, snapped on Oct. 31, 2012. “When we took that first selfie, we didn’t realize these would become so iconic and routine,” she said

Video from one of Perseverance’s navigation cameras shows the rover’s robotic arm twisting and maneuvering to take the 62 images that compose the image. What it doesn’t capture is how much work went into making this first selfie happen. Here’s a closer look.

How NASA’s Perseverance Rover Takes a Selfie

Video above: NASA’s Perseverance rover captured a historic group selfie with the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter on April 6, 2021. But how was the selfie taken? Vandi Verma, Perseverance’s chief engineer for robotic operations at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California breaks down the process in this video. Video Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS.


Perseverance’s selfie came together with the help of a core group of about a dozen people, including rover drivers, engineers who ran tests at JPL, and camera operations engineers who developed the camera sequence, processed the images, and stitched them together. It took about a week to plot out all the individual commands required.

Everyone was working on “Mars time” (a day on the Red Planet is 37 minutes longer than on Earth), which often means being awake in the middle of the night and catching up on sleep during the day. These team members sometimes passed up that sleep just to get the selfie done.

JPL worked with Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) in San Diego, which built and operates the camera responsible for the selfie. Called WATSON (Wide Angle Topographic Sensor for Operations and eNgineering), the camera is designed primarily for getting close-up detail shots of rock textures, not wide-angle images. Because each WATSON image covers only a small portion of a scene, engineers had to command the rover to take dozens of individual images to produce the selfie.

Image above: NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover took a selfie with the Ingenuity helicopter, seen here about 13 feet (3.9 meters) from the rover. This image was taken by the WASTON camera on the rover’s robotic arm on April 6, 2021, the 46th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS.

“The thing that took the most attention was getting Ingenuity into the right place in the selfie,” said Mike Ravine, Advanced Projects Manager at MSSS. “Given how small it is, I thought we did a pretty good job.”

When images come down from Mars, the MSSS image processing engineers began their work. They start by cleaning up any blemishes caused by dust that settled on the camera’s light detector. Then, they assemble the individual image frames into a mosaic and smooth out their seams using software. Finally, an engineer warps and crops the mosaic so that it looks more like a normal camera photo that the public is used to seeing.

Image above: This computer simulation shows NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover taking its first selfie, on April 6, 2021. The point of view of the rover’s WATSON camera is included to show how each of the 62 images were taken before being sent to Earth and stitched together into the selfie. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Computer Simulations

Like the Curiosity rover (this black-and-white video from March 2020 show how it takes a selfie), Perseverance has a rotating turret at the end of its robotic arm. Along with other science instruments, the turret includes the WATSON camera, which stays focused on the rover during selfies while being angled to capture a part of the scene. The arm acts like a selfie stick, remaining just out of frame in the final product.

Commanding Perseverance to film its selfie stick in action is much more challenging than with Curiosity. Where Curiosity’s turret measures 22 inches (55 centimeters) across, Perseverance’s turret is much bigger, measuring 30 inches (75 centimeters) across. That’s like waving something the diameter of a road bike wheel just centimeters in front of Perseverance’s mast, the “head” of the rover.

JPL created software to ensure the arm doesn’t collide with the rover. Each time a collision is detected in simulations on Earth, the engineering team adjusts the arm trajectory; the process repeats dozens of times to confirm the arm motion is safe. The final command sequence gets the robotic arm “as close as we could get to the rover’s body without touching it,” Verma said.

They run other simulations to ensure that, say, the Ingenuity helicopter is positioned appropriately in the final selfie or the microphone can capture sound from the robotic arm’s motors.

The Sound of Selfies

Along with its entry, descent, and landing microphone, Perseverance carries a microphone in its SuperCam instrument. The mics mark a first for NASA’s Mars spacecraft, and audio promises to be an important new tool for rover engineers in the years ahead. Among other uses, it can provide important details about whether something is working right. In the past, engineers would have to settle for listening to a test rover on Earth.

“It’s like your car: Even if you’re not a mechanic, sometimes you hear a problem before you realize something’s wrong,” Verma said.

While they haven’t heard anything concerning to date, the whirring motors do sound surprisingly musical when reverberating through the rover’s chassis.

More About the Mission

A key objective for Perseverance’s mission on Mars is astrobiology, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will characterize the planet’s geology and past climate, pave the way for human exploration of the Red Planet, and be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith (broken rock and dust).

Subsequent NASA missions, in cooperation with ESA (European Space Agency), would send spacecraft to Mars to collect these sealed samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis.

The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA’s Moon to Mars exploration approach, which includes Artemis missions to the Moon that will help prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet.

JPL, which is managed for NASA by Caltech in Pasadena, California, built and manages operations of the Perseverance rover.

WATSON (Wide Angle Topographic Sensor for Operations and eNgineering):

For more about Perseverance:

Videos (mentioned), Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Tony Greicius/Karen Fox/Alana Johnson/JPL/Andrew Good.


NASA Completes Additional Tests to Diagnose Computer Problem on Hubble Space Telescope


NASA - Hubble Space Telescope patch.

Jun 25, 2021

NASA is continuing to diagnose a problem with the payload computer on the Hubble Space Telescope after completing another set of tests on June 23 and 24.  The payload computer halted on June 13 and the spacecraft stopped collecting science data. The telescope itself and its science instruments remain in good health and are currently in a safe configuration.

Image above: The Hubble Space Telescope is deployed on April 25, 1990 from the space shuttle Discovery. Avoiding distortions of the atmosphere, Hubble has an unobstructed view peering to planets, stars and galaxies, some more than 13.4 billion light years away. Image Credits: NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Lockheed Corporation.

The spacecraft has two payload computers, one of which serves as a backup, that are located on the Science Instrument and Command and Data Handling (SI C&DH) unit. There are various pieces of hardware which make up both payload computers, including but not limited to:

- A Central Processing Module (CPM), which processes the commands that coordinate and control the science instruments

- A Standard Interface (STINT), which bridges communications between the computer’s CPM and other components

- A communications bus, which contains lines that pass signals and data between hardware

- And one active memory module, which stores operational commands to the instruments. There are three additional modules which serve as backups.

Additional tests performed on June 23 and 24 included turning on the backup computer for the first time in space. The tests showed that numerous combinations of these hardware pieces from both the primary and backup payload computer all experienced the same error - commands to write into or read from memory were not successful.

Since it is highly unlikely that all individual hardware elements have a problem, the team is now looking at other hardware as the possible culprit, including the Command Unit/Science Data Formatter (CU/SDF), another module on the SI C&DH. The CU formats and sends commands and data to specific destinations, including the science instruments. The SDF formats the science data from the science instruments for transmission to the ground. The team is also looking at the power regulator to see if possibly the voltages being supplied to hardware are not what they should be. A power regulator ensures a steady constant voltage supply. If the voltage is out of limits, it could cause the problems observed.

Over the next week, the team will continue to assess hardware on the SI C&DH unit to identify if something else may be causing the problem. If the team determines the CU/SDF or the power regulator is the likely cause, they will recommend switching to the backup CU/SDF module and the backup power regulator.

Launched in 1990, Hubble has been observing the universe for over 31 years. It has contributed to some of the most significant discoveries of our cosmos, including the accelerating expansion of the universe, the evolution of galaxies over time, and the first atmospheric studies of planets beyond our solar system. Read more about some of Hubble’s key scientific contributions.

June 22, 2021 - Testing Underway to Identify Issue and Restore Payload Computer on NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope

NASA continues to work to resolve a problem with the Hubble Space Telescope payload computer that halted on June 13. After performing tests on several of the computer’s memory modules, the results indicate that a different piece of computer hardware may have caused the problem, with the memory errors being only a symptom. The operations team is investigating whether the Standard Interface (STINT) hardware, which bridges communications between the computer’s Central Processing Module (CPM) and other components, or the CPM itself is responsible for the issue. The team is currently designing tests that will be run in the next few days to attempt to further isolate the problem and identify a potential solution.

This step is important for determining what hardware is still working properly for future reference. If the problem with the payload computer can’t be fixed, the operations team will be prepared to switch to the STINT and CPM hardware onboard the backup payload computer. The team has conducted ground tests and operations procedure reviews to verify all the commanding required to perform that switch on the spacecraft.

If the backup payload computer’s CPM and STINT hardware is turned on, several days will be required to assess the computer performance and restore normal science operations. The backup computer has not been powered on since its installation in 2009; however, it was thoroughly tested on the ground prior to installation on the spacecraft.

The payload computer is a NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer-1 (NSSC-1) system built in the 1980s that is located on the Science Instrument Command and Data Handling (SI C&DH) unit. After 18 years on orbit, the original SI C&DH experienced a failure in 2008 that delayed the final servicing mission to Hubble while a replacement was prepared for flight. In May 2009, STS-125 was launched and the astronauts installed the existing unit. The replacement contains original hardware from the 1980s with four independent 64K memory modules of Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) memory. Only one memory module is used operationally, with the other three serving as backups. All four modules can be used and accessed from either of the redundant payload computers.

Launched in 1990, with more than 30 years of operations, Hubble has made observations that have captured imaginations worldwide and deepened our knowledge of the cosmos.

For more information about the Science Instrument Command and Data Handling unit view the following PDF:

Science Instrument Command and Data Handling unit excerpt

June 18, 2021 - Operations Continue to Restore Payload Computer on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope

NASA continues to work on resolving an issue with the payload computer on the Hubble Space Telescope. The operations team will be running tests and collecting more information on the system to further isolate the problem.  The science instruments will remain in a safe mode state until the issue is resolved. The telescope itself and science instruments remain in good health.

The computer halted on Sunday, June 13.  An attempt to restart the computer failed on Monday, June 14.  Initial indications pointed to a degrading computer memory module as the source of the computer halt.  When the operations team attempted to switch to a back-up memory module, however, the command to initiate the backup module failed to complete.  Another attempt was conducted on both modules Thursday evening to obtain more diagnostic information while again trying to bring those memory modules online. However, those attempts were not successful.

The payload computer is a NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer-1 (NSSC-1) system built in the 1980s that is located on the Science Instrument Command and Data Handling unit. The computer’s purpose is to control and coordinate the science instruments and monitor them for health and safety purposes.  It is fully redundant in that a second computer, along with its associated hardware, exists on orbit that can be switched over to in the event of a problem.  Both computers can access and use any of four independent memory modules, which each contain 64K of Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) memory. The payload computer uses only one memory module operationally at a time, with the other three serving as backups.

Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Animation Credits: NASA/ESA

Launched in 1990, Hubble has contributed greatly to our understanding of the universe over the past 30 years.

Related article:

Operations Underway to Restore Payload Computer on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope

Hubble Space Telescope (HST):

Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Lynn Jenner/Elizabeth Landau/GSFC/Rob Gutro/Claire Andreoli.


Space Station Science Highlights: Week of June 21, 2021


ISS - Expedition 65 Mission patch.

Jun 25, 2021

The week of June 21, crew members aboard the International Space Station conducted scientific investigations that included studies of how cells detect gravity, solidification of metal alloys, and how complex plasmas form in space. ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Thomas Pesquet and NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough prepped for a June 25 spacewalk to install the next set of Integrated Roll-Out Solar Array (iROSA) panels. The additional panels will increase the energy available for research and other activities aboard the space station.

Image above: NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough (left) and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet work to install new roll out solar arrays on the International Space Station's P-6 truss structure. Image Credit: NASA.

The space station has been continuously inhabited by humans for 20 years, supporting many scientific breakthroughs. The orbiting lab provides a platform for long-duration research in microgravity and for learning to live and work in space, experience that supports Artemis, NASA’s program to go forward to the Moon and on to Mars.

Here are details on some of the microgravity investigations currently taking place:

Sensing gravity

Research shows that individual animal cells can detect gravity, but the mechanism by which they do so is largely unknown. Cell Gravisensing, an investigation from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), analyzes whether changes in the tension in cell stress fibers that occur during spaceflight may play a role. Results could promote development of drugs to treat muscle atrophy and osteoporosis on Earth and to help prevent or treat muscle atrophy and bone loss experienced by astronauts during spaceflight. The investigation uses a new method to image cell responses to microgravity that could make a significant contribution to other biological research. During the week, crew members conducted operations for the investigation.


Image above: Mexico’s Baja peninsula is visible in this image taken from the space station. Image Credit: NASA.

Isolating properties of metal alloys

An investigation from the ESA, MSL SCA-Batch 3a-ESA includes two projects, MICAST and CETSOL, examining the physical principles that govern solidification processes in metal alloys. CETSOL looks at the transition from columnar crystals (those with one direction of longer growth) to equiaxed crystals (equal growth in all directions) in refined aluminum and copper alloys. Microgravity removes the factors of melt flow and sedimentation and helps researchers pinpoint the specific effects of gravity. MSL SCA-Batch 3a-ESA could support development of light-weight, high-performance structural materials for space applications. Materials research in microgravity makes it possible to better isolate chemical and thermal properties of solidification and also could lead to better processes for making alloys for a variety of industries on Earth. Crew members installed cartridges for the investigation in the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) during the week.

Catching plasma particles

Image above: Roscosmos cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy conducts the PK-4 experiment, which explores low temperature mixtures of ionized gas, neutral gas, and micron-sized particles that could lead to improved spacecraft designs. Image Credit: NASA.

PK-4, a collaboration between ESA and Russian space agency Rocosmos, studies complex plasmas, low-temperature gaseous mixtures of ionized gas, neutral gas, and micron-sized particles. Plasmas are found throughout the universe, from the interstellar medium to the heat shields of spacecraft re-entering Earth's atmosphere. Understanding how plasma crystals form in microgravity could shed light on plasma phenomena in space and lead to improved spacecraft designs. This research also investigates the fundamentals of flows and related instabilities in the plasma formation process. A better understanding of the processes at work and the parameters that influence complex plasmas also could result in improvements in industries where plasmas are used. The crew executed multiple operations, catching clouds of particles inside the PK-4 chamber during the week.

Other investigations on which the crew performed work:

Image above: This image shows the Asian Herb in Space investigation, which examines differences in the aroma of fast-growing plants used for traditional medicine and flavoring food, changes that may be caused by microgravity. Image Credit: NASA.

- Asian Herb in Space, a JAXA investigation, examines differences in the aroma of fast-growing plants used for traditional medicine and flavoring food, changes that may result from microgravity-related cellular changes. Results could benefit future plant growth efforts in space and provide new information on the formation of aroma compounds in common herbs.

- Oral Biofilms in Space studies how gravity affects the structure, composition, and activity of oral bacteria in the presence of common oral care agents. Findings could support development of novel treatments to fight oral diseases such as caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis.

- RTPCG-2 demonstrates a new method that could produce higher-quality protein crystals, which are easier to analyze. Improved production of high-resolution protein crystals could help companies identify new targets and develop better drugs to treat a variety of diseases on Earth.

- Food Acceptability looks at how the appeal of food changes during long-duration missions. Whether crew members like and actually eat foods directly affects caloric intake and associated nutritional benefits.

- Antimicrobial Coatings tests a coating to control microbial growth on different materials that represent high-touch surfaces on the space station. Some microbes change characteristics in microgravity, potentially creating new risks to crew health and spacecraft.

- Standard Measures collects a set of core measurements from astronauts before, during, and after long-duration missions to create a data repository to monitor and interpret how humans adapt to living in space.

- Food Physiology examines the effects of an enhanced spaceflight diet on immune function, the gut microbiome, and nutritional status indicators, with the aim of documenting how dietary improvements may enhance adaptation to spaceflight.

- ISS Ham Radio provides students, teachers, parents, and others the opportunity to communicate with astronauts using ham radio units. Before a scheduled call, students learn about the station, radio waves, and other topics, and prepare a list of questions on topics they have researched.

Space to Ground: Power Installation: 06/25/2021

Related links:

Expedition 65:

Cell Gravisensing:

MSL SCA-Batch 3a-ESA:



ISS National Lab:

Spot the Station:

Space Station Research and Technology:

International Space Station (ISS):

Images (mentioned), Video (NASA), Text, Credits: NASA/Ana Guzman/John Love, ISS Research Planning Integration Scientist Expedition 65.

Best regards,

jeudi 24 juin 2021

Planned correction of the ISS orbit has been carried out


ROSCOSMOS - Russian Vehicles patch.

June 24, 2021

In order to form ballistic conditions before the launch of the manned spacecraft CST-100 Starliner (Boe-OFT 2), Soyuz MS-19, as well as the landing of the descent vehicle of the Soyuz MS-18 spacecraft, another correction of the orbital altitude of the International Space Station was carried out.

Progress MS-16 spacecraft. Image Credit: ROSCOSMOS

According to the updated data of the ballistic and navigation support service of the Flight Control Center of TsNIIMash (part of the Roscosmos State Corporation), on June 24, 2021 at 05:40 Moscow time, a command was issued and the engines of the Progress MS-16 spacecraft were turned on, which normally operated 466 seconds. The impulse value was 0.5 m / s. The average altitude of the station's orbit after the maneuver was 420.28 km above the Earth's surface.

ISS orbit parameters after the corrective maneuver:

- Orbital period: 92.92 min;
- Orbital inclination: 51.66 degrees;
- Minimum orbit altitude: 419.71 km;
- Maximum orbital altitude: 439.66 km.

Note that every day the International Space Station makes 15 or 16 orbits around the Earth. The route of a part of these loops passes through the visibility zones of the Russian ground command and measurement points, while other loops are "blind". The orbit of the maneuver is selected in such a way as to provide an opportunity to first send commands to the ISS to execute it, and then to monitor the operation using telemetric information and obtain measurements of the movement parameters after the maneuver using ground-based means. Depending on the date of maneuvering, the turns on which this is possible may occur at different times of the day.

Within the selected orbit, the time for performing the maneuver is selected based on the requirements for the parameters of the ISS orbit: it is usually necessary to form an orbit that is closest to a circular one, and also to ensure that there are no dangerous encounters with "space debris" after the maneuver.

Now the crew of the ISS-65 expedition, consisting of Roscosmos cosmonauts Oleg Novitsky, Pyotr Dubrov and NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hai, who arrived on April 9, 2021 on the Soyuz MS-18 spacecraft, as well as crew members of the Crew Dragon spacecraft, are working on board the International Space Station. NASA Shane Kimbrow and Megan MacArthur, ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Akihiko Hoshide.

Related article:

ISS orbit will be increased by almost 1 km during the correction on June 24

Related links:

ROSCOSMOS Press Release:

International Space Station (ISS):

Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: ROSCOSMOS/ Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Best regards,

Astronauts Get Ready for Spacewalk While Science Continues


ISS - Expedition 65 Mission patch.

June 24, 2021

Four Expedition 65 crew members spent Thursday preparing for the third spacewalk to continue new roll-out solar array installation work. The other three International Space Station crew members continued with variety of space research.

Astronauts Shane Kimbrough and Thomas Pesquet are scheduled to exit the space station shortly after they set their U.S. spacesuits to battery power at 8 a.m. EDT on Friday. The veteran spacewalking duo will work about 6.5 hours to begin installing a second ISS Roll-Out Solar Array (iROSA) on the station’s Port-6 truss structure.

Image above: (Clockwise from bottom) Expedition 65 Flight Engineers Mark Vande Hei, Megan McArthur, Shane Kimbrough and Thomas Pesquet participate in robotics training to support the solar array installation spacewalks. Image Credit: NASA.

Both astronauts set up their spacesuits then readied their tools inside the U.S. Quest airlock just before lunchtime today. Afterward, they joined NASA Flight Engineers Megan McArthur and Mark Vande Hei and reviewed the procedures and robotics activities planned for Friday’s excursion. NASA TV will begin its live spacewalk coverage at 6:30 a.m. on both the agency’s website and the NASA app.

Image above: NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough (left) and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Thomas Pesquet maneuver the first ISS Roll-Out Solar Array (iROSA) into place on the space station’s port 6 truss structure during a spacewalk June 16, 2021. Image Credit: NASA.

Commander Akihiko Hoshide started his day swapping samples inside the Materials Science Laboratory. Those samples, such as metals, polymers and alloys, are exposed to high temperatures possibly leading to new applications or new materials on Earth and in space. The three-time station visitor also investigated how microgravity affects bacteria and ways to counteract harmful changes for the Oral Biofilms experiment.

Astronaut spacewalk. Animation Credit: NASA

In the Russian segment of the orbiting lab, Roscosmos Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy and Pyotr Dubrov partnered together and explored how long-term spaceflight impacts the blood circulation system. Novitskiy later worked in the Columbus laboratory module trapping clouds of particles for a plasma crystal experiment. Dubrov also researched piloting techniques that astronauts might use to maneuver future spacecraft and robots on planetary surfaces.

Related article:

NASA to Air Launch, Docking of Roscosmos Cargo Ship to Space Station

Related links:


Expedition 65:

ISS Roll-Out Solar Array (iROSA):

Port-6 truss structure:

U.S. Quest airlock:

Materials Science Laboratory:

Oral Biofilms:

Blood circulation system:

Columbus laboratory module:

Piloting techniques:

Space Station Research and Technology:

International Space Station (ISS):

Images (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.


Study Looks More Closely at Mars’ Underground Water Signals


ESA - Mars Express Mission patch.

Jun 24, 2021

A new paper finds more radar signals suggesting the presence of subsurface ‘lakes,’ but many are in areas too cold for water to remain liquid.

Image above: The bright white region of this image shows the icy cap that covers Mars’ south pole, composed of frozen water and frozen carbon dioxide. ESA’s Mars Express imaged this area of Mars on Dec. 17, 2012, in infrared, green and blue light, using its High Resolution Stereo Camera. Image Credits: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin/Bill Dunford.

In 2018, scientists working with data from ESA’s (the European Space Agency’s) Mars Express orbiter announced a surprising discovery: Signals from a radar instrument reflected off the Red Planet’s south pole appeared to reveal a liquid subsurface lake. Several more such reflections have been announced since then.

In a new paper published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, two scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California describe finding dozens of similar radar reflections around the south pole after analyzing a broader set of Mars Express data, but many are in areas that should be too cold for water to remain liquid.

“We’re not certain whether these signals are liquid water or not, but they appear to be much more widespread than what the original paper found,” said Jeffrey Plaut of JPL, co-principal investigator of the orbiter’s MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding) instrument, which was built jointly by the Italian Space Agency and JPL. “Either liquid water is common beneath Mars’ south pole or these signals are indicative of something else.”

Frozen Time Capsule

The radar signals originally interpreted as liquid water were found in a region of Mars known as the South Polar Layered Deposits, named for the alternating layers of water ice, dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), and dust that have settled there over millions of years. These layers are believed to provide a record of how the tilt in Mars’ axis has shifted over time, just as changes in Earth’s tilt have created ice ages and warmer periods throughout our planet’s history. When Mars had a lower axial tilt, snowfall and layers of dust accumulated in the region and eventually formed the thick layered ice sheet found there today.

Image above: ESA’s (the European Space Agency’s) Mars Express flies over the Red Planet in this illustration. Image Credits: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech.

By beaming radio waves at the surface, scientists can peer below these icy layers, mapping them in detail. Radio waves lose energy when they pass through material in the subsurface; as they reflect back to the spacecraft, they usually have a weaker signal. But in some cases, signals returning from this region’s subsurface were brighter than those at the surface. Some scientists have interpreted these signals to imply the presence of liquid water, which strongly reflects radio waves.

Plaut and Aditya Khuller, a doctoral student at Arizona State University who worked on the paper while interning at JPL, aren’t sure what the signals indicate. The areas hypothesized to contain liquid water span about 6 to 12 miles (10 to 20 kilometers) in a relatively small region of the Martian south pole. Khuller and Plaut expanded the search for similar strong radio signals to 44,000 measurements spread across 15 years of MARSIS data over the entirety of the Martian south polar region.

Unexpected ‘Lakes’

The analysis revealed dozens of additional bright radar reflections over a far greater range of area and depth than ever before. In some places, they were less than a mile from the surface, where temperatures are estimated to be minus 81 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 63 degrees Celsius) – so cold that water would be frozen, even if it contained salty minerals known as perchlorates, which can lower the freezing point of water.

Khuller noted a 2019 paper in which researchers calculated the heat needed to melt subsurface ice in this region, finding that only recent volcanism under the surface could explain the potential presence of liquid water under the south pole.

Image above: The colored dots represent sites where bright radar reflections have been spotted by ESA’s Mars Express orbiter at Mars’ south polar cap. Such reflections were previously interpreted as subsurface liquid water. Their prevalence and proximity to the frigid surface suggests they may be something else. Image Credits: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech.

“They found that it would take double the estimated Martian geothermal heat flow to keep this water liquid,” Khuller said. “One possible way to get this amount of heat is through volcanism. However, we haven’t really seen any strong evidence for recent volcanism at the south pole, so it seems unlikely that volcanic activity would allow subsurface liquid water to be present throughout this region.”

What explains the bright reflections if they’re not liquid water? The authors can’t say for sure. But their paper does offer scientists a detailed map of the region that contains clues to the climate history of Mars, including the role of water in its various forms.

“Our mapping gets us a few steps closer to understanding both the extent and the cause of these puzzling radar reflections,” said Plaut.

Related links:

Geophysical Research Letters:

MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding):

Mars Express:

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: ESA/NASA/Karen Fox/Alana Johnson/JPL/Andrew Good.

Best regards,

The 2,000 stars where aliens would catch a glimpse of Earth


Exoplanets logo.

June 24, 2021

Scientists searching for extraterrestrial life should narrow their hunt to stars and planetary systems that have an occasional view of the Earth as it passes in front of the Sun.

Image above: An illustration of the Earth from space illuminated by the Sun. Stars with a past or future view of the Earth as a transiting exoplanet appear brightened. Image Credits: OpenSpace/American Museum of Natural History.

Astronomers have pinpointed more than 2,000 stars from where, in the not-too-distant past or future, Earth can occasionally be detected transiting across the face of the Sun.

If there are aliens living on planets around those stars, with at least a similar level of technological advancement to our own species, then they would theoretically be able to spot us. They could even have observed as the amount of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere increased over the past several hundred years, since the industrial revolution.

The work, reported in this week’s Nature (1), offers a new way of thinking about the search for extraterrestrial life, says Lisa Kaltenegger, an astronomer at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, who led the analysis. “Who has the cosmic front seat to see us?” she asks. “For whom would we be the aliens?”

Those aliens would be the natural choice for Earthlings to look for, say the scientists — because they may have already had a chance to spot us, and thus might be primed to be ready for communications from Earth.

Movement of stars over time

Although previous studies have considered this question (2,3,4), this is the first to incorporate the movement of stars over time, because stars can slide in or out of the narrow slice of the sky that happens to line up with both Earth and the Sun. With this information, the scientists were able to predict where Earth was visible from over the past 5,000 years or so of human civilization — and also predict where it will be visible another 5,000 years into the future.

In doing so, the study expands astronomers’ thinking about which stars have “a better-than-average shot of discovering and characterizing the Earth,” says Sofia Sheikh, an astrobiologist at the Berkeley SETI Research Center in California.

The discovery was made possible by the European Space Agency’s Gaia space observatory, which has compiled the best three-dimensional map of stars to date. Working with Jackie Faherty, an astronomer at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, Kaltenegger analysed the Gaia map to see which stars have been, or will be, in a position where Earth briefly moves between them and our Sun.

Because most of the sky lies in other planes to that of our Solar System, there’s just a tiny sliver where this is possible, she says. Of the more than 330,000 stars in the Gaia catalogue that are within 100 parsecs of Earth, just 2,043 happen to have the perfect viewing geometry.

Of those, 1,715 are in the right locations to have spotted Earth in the past 5,000 years, and an additional 319 will have vantage points in the next 5,000 years (see 'All eyes on Earth'). Seven of the 2,034 are already known to host planets — but many more are likely to have worlds orbiting them, some of which may be suitable for life.

The method assumed for spying Earth from elsewhere in the Galaxy is the same one that Earth-bound astronomers have used to discover thousands of exoplanets: detecting the light of a distant star dimming slightly and regularly, as an orbiting planet passes across its face.

Good alien targets

With the results of this study, astronomers searching for extraterrestrial life can now focus on stars and planetary systems that have a view of Earth and thus might already expect to hear from us. “It really helps in the hunting if you know where the prey is located,” says Seth Shostak, an astronomer at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California.

Of those stars, the authors further identified 75 that are close enough — within 30 parsecs — for radio waves from Earth to already have washed over them since humans started to produce them. Those might be particularly good targets, Kaltenegger says, because aliens there could have both seen and heard us by now.

But other stars assume new prominence. For instance, astronomers know of seven Earth-sized planets orbiting the star TRAPPIST-1, 12 parsecs from Earth. TRAPPIST-1 will move into a position to see Earth as a transiting planet in the year 3663, say the study authors (see 'Some of the stars with known exoplanets that have a view of Earth').

Astronomers and science-fiction writers have noted that civilizations could signal their existence by constructing artificial ‘megastructures’ that pass in front of their stars, briefly dimming their light in a characteristic way.

Perhaps, some say, humanity should plan ahead for when eyes from the TRAPPIST-1 system might be cast in our direction. “Maybe we should think about installing a transiting megastructure for them to observe,” says René Heller, an astrophysicist at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Göttingen, Germany.



1. Kaltenegger, L. & Faherty, J. K. Nature 594, 505–507 (2021).

2. Shostak, S. & Villard, R. Symp. Int. Astron. Union 213, 409–414 (2004).

3. Heller, R. & Pudritz, R. E. Astrobiology 16, 259–270 (2016).

4. Kaltenegger, L. & Pepper, J. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 499, L111-L115 (2020).

Image (mentioned), Graphics (mentioned), Text, Credits: Nature/Alexandra Witze.


mercredi 23 juin 2021

Afternoon of Spacewalk Preps during Full Day of Physics, Biology


ISS - Expedition 65 Mission patch.

June 23, 2021

Wednesday was a light duty day for the five Expedition 65 astronauts, two of whom will go on their third spacewalk this month. The two Russian flight engineers aboard the International Space Station stayed  focused on cardiac research and plasma crystal physics throughout the day.

Astronauts Shane Kimbrough and Thomas Pesquet joined NASA Flight Engineers Megan McArthur and Mark Vande Hei for robotics training ahead of Friday’s spacewalk. The quartet reviewed and practiced robotics maneuvers on a computer planned to support the installation of the station’s second roll out solar array.

Image above: NASA spacewalker Shane Kimbrough is pictured during a spacewalk to install new roll out solar arrays on the International Space Station’s Port-6 truss structure. Image Credit: NASA TV.

Kimbrough and Pesquet will begin their third spacewalk in nine days on Friday at 8 a.m. EDT when they set their U.S. spacesuits to battery power. The veteran spacewalkers will spend about six-and-a-half hours on the Port-6 truss structure installing the second roll out solar array on the opposite side of where they installed the first solar array. NASA TV, on the agency’s website and the NASA app, will begin its live coverage at 6:30 a.m.

All four astronauts, including Commander Akihiko Hoshide, spent the morning relaxing following a busy period during the first two solar array installation spacewalks. Hoshide had a full day of rest as the other four astronauts spent the afternoon concentrating on Friday’s spacewalk preparations.

International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: ESA

In the orbiting lab’s Russian segment, Roscosmos Flight Engineer Oleg Novitskiy continued trapping clouds of particles using both neon and argon gas for a plasma crystal experiment. He also joined cosmonaut Pyotr Dubrov attaching electrodes to themselves and monitoring their cardiac activity before exercise activities. Dubrov also worked on a navigation study to precisely predict the location of the space station during its orbit.

Related articles:

NASA to Air Third Spacewalk to Install New Station Solar Arrays

NASA to Air Northrop Grumman Cygnus Departure from Space Station

Related links:

Expedition 65:

Port-6 truss structure:

Plasma crystal:

Navigation study:

Space Station Research and Technology:

International Space Station (ISS):

Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.

Best regards,

China Space Station - The Tianhe core module has Hall-effect thrusters - CSS astronauts unpack EVA spacesuit


CMS - China Manned Space logo.

June 23, 2021

China Space Station (CSS)

The Tianhe core module (天和核心舱), the first and main component of the China Space Station (中国空间站), has two propulsion systems: chemical propulsion that creates thrust from chemical reactions between solid or liquid propellants, and Hall-effect thrusters that generate thrust by accelerating ions using electricity.

The Tianhe core module has Hall-effect thrusters

The Shenzhou-12 crew on board the China Space Station (CSS), astronauts Nie Haisheng, Liu Boming and Tang Hongbo, moved the extravehicular activity spacesuit from the Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft to the Tianhe core module, on 20 June 2021.

CSS Taikonaut (astronaut) EVA spacesuit

Astronauts (taikonauts) are scheduled to conduct two extravehicular activities (EVA) during their three-month mission. The Chinese spacesuits are similar to Russian Orlan spacesuits.

CSS astronauts unpack EVA spacesuit

Related articles:

China Space Station - Shenzhou-12 crew begins three-month mission

China sends its first crew to its Space Station

Long March-7 Y3 launches Tianzhou-2 & Tianzhou-2 docking to the Tianhe Core Module

Tianhe completes in-orbit checks & Long March-7 Y3 ready to launch Tianzhou-2

China Space Station

CASC - Long March-5B Y2 launches the Tianhe Core Module

For more information about China National Space Administration (CNSA), visit:

Images, Videos, Text, Credits: CNSA/CMS/China Central Television (CCTV)/SciNews/ Aerospace/Roland Berga.


Exodus of civilization into space - American Jobs Plan. Part 18.4


Space Expansion logo.


 June 23, 2021


Here the eighteenth (18.4) article of a series of articles by Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich, expert in chronology and calendar systems, as well as space biology and medicine, Parliamentarian of Asgardia (AMP) the first space Nation.

Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich

It is on Earth that space technologies need to be introduced first of all now, as the US government did, which proposed an ambitious social plan on March 31, 2021: "American Jobs Plan".

This plan should provide 19 million jobs. $ 2 to $ 5 trillion investment over 15 years in environmental space programs on Earth. Strategic US transition from fossil fuels to green electrification of the entire country.

The future belongs to efficient storage systems for large amounts of energy and large solar power plants. A good example is a power plant that was recently opened in Dubai. It generates electricity at a cost of about 4 to 5 cents per kilowatt. It is cheaper than getting energy from fossil sources.

All countries of the world should follow this example of the United States, and then the 21st century will become an unprecedented "golden age" of space industrialization and cooperation for countries and states throughout the history of human civilization.

Billionaire Jeff Bezos will fly into space on July 20, 2021 in his own New Shepard spacecraft

The flight is scheduled for July 20. The company said that Bezos (two brothers) will fly with the third (the winner of the auction). Blue Origin successfully completed 15 New Shepard test flights, the last in mid-April 2021.


A place in the same spaceship with the founder of Amazon, the richest man in the world, Jeff Bezos, was auctioned for $ 28 million. This was reported by the company Blue Origin, which held the auction.

“Blue Origin has completed an online auction for # 1 in New Shepard, raising $ 28 million. About 7,600 people from 159 countries registered to participate in the auction, ”the company’s representatives are quoted by the 360 ​​TV company.

The name of the winner of the auction is not yet known, it will be announced within a few weeks. The first two space tourists will be the Bezos brothers.

Billionaire Jeff Bezos

Private space company Blue Origin was created by Amazon founder Jeff Bezos in 2000.

In the USA and in the West in general, billionaires (Richard Branson, Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, etc.) create new space technologies, are the creators and agents of progress.

In Russia and throughout the post-Soviet space, billionaires create only yachts for personal use. This is the only reason why Russia does not have the means to develop new space technologies. You can't fly into space on yachts.

Gennady Krivoschapov believes: "The Russian military-industrial complex and space are doomed to degradation."

Gennady Fedorovich Krivoshchapov took part in the preparation and launches of the Soyuz spacecraft, led a team of adjusters of a test stand 1 (one) kilometer long. He is proud of the fact that two 50-ton monoliths with a gap tolerance of 0.5 millimeters were docked under his command.

"Until a political and public verdict on changing the direction of the country's development is adopted, all attempts to solve problems by technical means are deliberately futile."


According to Andrei Ionin, an independent expert in the space industry, in Russia it is possible to create a body similar to, for example, the US Space Council, which could set national goals based on government priorities.

It is extremely important to give specific tasks, providing them with long-term financial resources, as well as to develop international cooperation and intensify inter-sectoral interaction.


Therefore, Russia will have to cooperate in creating the GC either with China, at least, or with a wider range of financially and economically powerful countries of the EU and the United States?

Without GC systems (stationary and mobile), the duration of the stay of people in space will be limited to periods from 6 to 11 months, as is the case today on the ISS, for medical reasons.

This is somewhat reminiscent of abandoning the use of the toilet on the Apollo spacecraft in favor of diapers. The flights of American astronauts to the moon in diapers still amaze the whole world and cause many to doubt the reality of these flights in principle.

GK systems are key to the modern exploration of the enormous potential of the Universe.

All countries will be divided into two principal groups:

Some will permanently live in space on the GC in conditions of healthy artificial gravity of the earth's level (1.0g), that is, will be full-fledged "space people", while others will be temporary visitors "in diapers" in conditions of pathological weightlessness?

What group will Russia be in? Will Russia officially become a full-fledged modern prosperous "space state" like the UAE, like a "national idea"?

Without the adoption of the state space program SELENOSTRATEGY, without reorganization ("without sharpening") under this program of the entire economic and political life of the country, including in changing, perhaps, the Basic Law for this space task ?, - Russia can simply disappear from the stage of history Land with their oligarchs and their yachts in the next 10 years?

"Over the past 10 years, on average, Russia has grown 8 times slower than the world economy as a whole. The Russian oligarchic economy is sinking in a swamp of stagnation. The current size of GDP in 2018 exceeded the level of 2008 by slightly more than 4%."

"Having gone through two recessions in 10 years, on average, Russia grew at 0.4% per year - 8 times slower than the global economy as a whole, adding, according to the World Bank, 31.2%."

"This (2018) year, Russia will be in 166th place in the world in terms of growth," says Yakov Mirkin, Head of the Capital Markets Department at IMEMO RAN: The IMF predicts 1.7% with a slowdown to 1.5% in the next 5 years.

"This is one third slower than developed countries are growing (2.4% and 2.2% in 2018-19), half the indicators of the world economy as a whole (3.9% for the next two years) and almost three times worse than developing countries whose growth the fund estimates at 4.9% this year and 5.1% next. "

“Almost 80% of the working-age population does not have the skills and competencies to work in modern markets. At the same time, 50% of Russian scientists, 52% of top managers, 54% of IT specialists and 49% of engineering workers would like to leave the country and work abroad. "

"Every year, 100 thousand people leave the country, of which 70% are" intellectual migration ", highly qualified specialists, according to the RANEPA."

"At the end of 2017, funding for science was cut to a minimum in 10 years, to 377.9 billion rubles. This is three times less than the state spends on providing the apparatus of officials and state authorities (1.2 trillion rubles) and 13 times less army and police (almost 5 trillion rubles). "

"Everything is set up for braking, for redundancy, for carving out a shrinking pie." The number of those wishing to share it has doubled over the past 20 years: the army of officials has grown from 2.4 million people in 1995 to 5.3 million, according to BCG.

At the same time, only 15% of the population is employed in small business versus 40% in India, 52% in Brazil, 63% in Germany and 80% in China. "

With this trend, it seems that only those who do not produce anything, but only actively "divide" the emaciated budget and the dying "small business", will remain.

A radical reorganization of the state economic system from above is a common thing in history: in England it happened in 1533 under King Henry VIII; in Russia - in 1700 under Tsar Peter I; and under Empress Catherine II - in 1764.

If the timely "economic reorganization from above" was delayed, then they received the same result, but through the "revolution from below":

In 1640 - through the revolution in England (Oliver Cromwell); in 1789 - the Great French Revolution (Maximilian Robespierre-Napoleon Bonaparte); in 1917 - the Great October Revolution in Russia (Lenin-Trotsky-Stalin).

Can Russia today economically transform itself "from above" into a full-fledged "space state" in the sense that its main social goal should officially be the massive colonization of outer space?

All developed countries have taken this path since April 6, 2020 - with the Executive Order on Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources (Executive Order on Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources).

This is an American "Decree" - not an initiative of Russia, it is an active scientifically grounded international initiative - a challenge by the United States to the entire world community.

Will Russia either take measures of an adequate economic response and internal reorganization to this initiative-challenge to the United States, or will it ignore and lag behind the United States in the historical perspective?

How much will Russia have enough political and economic flexibility for adequate self-organization and adjustment for fundamentally new important world space tasks, for the transformation from today's stagnation and 116th place in the world ranking in terms of growth rates into a modern prosperous "space state"?

In this case, the space department of D. Rogozin in the new "Space Russia" should be recognized as the state leading, priority, key core? How is the "national idea"?

Roscosmos will become the main ideological and production core of the "space state" Russia? What is Russia's "national idea"?

All other economic indicators of Russia will have to keep their count from the economic events in Roscosmos?

Should the oligarchs and their yachts remain as a top priority in the past?

Head of Roscosmos Dmitry Rogozin. Photo from "Yandex. Pictures"

Should the entire sublunary world as part of the UN gradually come to a similar target space priority setting for its national economies and national programs?

Will it be a modern scientific state and interstate international approach to the problem of space colonization, and not the "extravagant exotic" of only individual billionaires - Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson?


Related articles:

Exodus of civilization into space - The space age of civilization began its new Third stage (civil). Part 18.3

Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - Ideology of the UN in the XXI Century. Part 18.2

Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - UN Ideology in the XXI Century. Part 18.1

Space Toilet and Problems of Intestinal Stick Infection. Part 17.7

Three Historical Stages of Cosmonautics Development. Part 17.6

Brief Background to Selenopolitics (Industrial Colonization of the Moon). Part 17.5

Exodus of civilization into space - Creation of the first ever mobile homeostatic ark (HA) in the USA. Part 16

Exodus of civilization into space - Apocalypse; View from the UK. Part 15

Exodus of civilization into space - Comparison of plans of NASA and Roscosmos. Part 14

The ideology of space expansion - The question of pregnancy and childbirth in zero gravity. Part 17.4

Colonization of the Moon - The source of the power, wealth and power of civilization in the Universe. Part 17.3

Space manned industrialization of the XXI century - the golden age of civilization. Part 17.2

Exodus of civilization into space - Humanity's strategy to create stationary and mobile Homeostatic arks. Part 17.1

Exodus of civilization into space - Tsiolkovsky Galactic State. Part 9

Exodus of civilization into space - Symbol of the End of the XXI century. Part 8

Exodus of civilization into space - Stopping the process of increasing value added. Part 7

Exodus of civilization into space - The sixth socio-economic formation of civilization. Part 6

Exodus of civilization into space - Space man. Part 5

Exodus of civilization into space - Biological End of the World. Part 4

Exodus of civilization into space - Geochronological Ice Ages, periods, eras. Part 3

Exodus of civilization into space - Astrophysical End of the World. Part 2

The ideology of space expansion - Space calendar. Part 1

Related links:

About Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich:

Original article in Russian on Zen.Yandex:

Asgardia website:

Author: Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich / Zen.Yandex. Editor / Translation: Roland Berga. 

Best regards,