samedi 11 décembre 2021

Blue Origin safely completes third human spaceflight


Blue Origin - New Shepard NS-19 Mission patch.

Dec. 11, 2021

Blue Origin NS-19: New Shepard’s liftoff

The New Shepard reusable launch system was launched from and landed at Blue Origin’s Launch Site One in West Texas, on 11 December 2021, at 15:02 UTC (09:02 CST). For the first time, the New Shepard capsule carried six passengers to space for this New Shepard launch vehicle (NS-19).

Blue Origin today successfully completed the third human spaceflight - the first with six passengers on board. The passengers manifest included, Laura Shepard Churchley, Michael Strahan, Evan Dick, Dylan Taylor, Cameron Bess, and Lane Bess.

Image above: The crew of New Shepard NS-19. Pictured from left to right: Dylan Taylor, Lane Bess, Cameron Bess, Laura Shepard Churchley, Michael Strahan, and Evan Dick.

“We had a great flight today. This was our sixth flight in what has been a great year for the New Shepard program. We flew 14 astronauts to space, flew a NASA payload flight that tested lunar landing sensors and completed our certification test flights,” said Bob Smith, CEO Blue Origin.

Blue Origin NS-19: New Shepard’s third human spaceflight

“I want to thank our payload customers, our astronauts and, of course, Team Blue for these many important accomplishments. I am so proud to be part of this dedicated and hard-working team that ensures that each and every flight of New Shepard is safe and reliable. And it’s fun to say that this is just the beginning.”

New Shepard capsule landing

Blue Origin is planning several crewed and payload flights in 2022. If you are interested in flying on New Shepard, visit our website:

Images, Video, Text, Credits: Blue Origin/Gradatim Ferociter/SciNews/ Aerospace/Roland Berga.


Exodus of civilization into space - Criterion of weightlessness (microgravity). Selenostrategy as a strategy of the IBMP RAS? Part 25


Humanity Space Expansion logo.

Dec. 11, 2021

Sergey Lvovich Morozov, Candidate of Medical Sciences,



The moon - as the first spaceship of earthly civilization?

The exodus of civilization from the Earth has no alternative. This is not a matter of choice, it is a concept of sad inevitability. Although today few people think about the fact that the Earth, as a planet, will, unfortunately, be absorbed in history by the crown of the Sun and physically cease to exist, while biological life will end on the surface of the Earth much earlier than its astrophysical death along with humanity, as unique view?

An analysis of scientific world literature and concrete practice leads to the conclusion that humanity, as a species, is temporarily on Earth. Tsiolkovsky wrote about this.

What is preventing us from starting to create a new "Galactic State" on Earth according to the Tsiolkovsky model? (Part 9 - Tsiolkovsky Galactic State.)

Humanity will disappear from world history if it does not have time to move to a permanent place of residence from the Earth into space, and first of all to the Moon, which can easily be turned into the first main homeostatic ark and into the first main saving mobile spaceship for the entire earthly civilization (peculiar in the literal sense of the "Kingdom of Heaven"?), - for a whole range of reasons. I have summarized them in five short articles on my personal site since 2018, translated into English.

S.L. Morozov Part 1 - Biblical End of the World.

S.L. Morozov Part 2 - Astrophysical End of the World.

S.L. Morozov Part 3 - Geochronological end of the world. Ice ages, periods, eras.

S.L. Morozov Part 4 - Biological End of the World.

S.L. Morozov Part 15 - Apocalypse. View from the UK.

The meaning of life and the meaning of the very existence of civilization on Earth is, therefore, the creation of conditions for the permanent residence of a person in space and on the Moon in the first place (and only after that on Mars and elsewhere in the Universe)?

According to NASA, the stable presence of man on the moon will make it possible to set the next target - Mars.

Is the Moon intended by Nature itself to become the first place of permanent residence of Mankind after the Earth?


Why does the Moon have a clear preference as the main contender for the space "Noah's Ark" of earthly civilization? The development by DC United Space Structures (USA) of a minimum-size station with artificial gravity, which must be created to replace the modern ISS - like a "homeostatic ark", - according to calculations, will require a payload with a mass of at least 10 million tons. Protection against cosmic radiation must be very reliable.

Homeostatic Ark - DC United Space Structures development intended to replace the ISS

Naturally, the task of delivering such a gigantic cargo to orbit cannot be performed purely technically, given the current level of technological development of the space industry. Therefore, you need to build the first homeostatic ark right on the moon. This can be done at the current level of development of space technology.

On the Moon, it is easy to make multi-ton protection from any level of cosmic radiation using an unlimited amount of lunar soil and the depth of the station from the surface of the Moon. ... This massive space radiation shield will not need to be carried from Earth. The station itself is easy to fix on the ground.

S.L. Morozov Part 21 - Ideology of space expansion (2019).

This is the whole point of the "Selenostrategy" I proposed, - in the transformation of the Moon into the first main homeostatic self-sufficient spaceship of civilization, freely moving with people in the Universe at cosmic speeds. People will become a permanent intelligent part of the Universe.

“I think that going to Mars is not a fundamental issue. The fundamental question is the construction of a base, a self-sufficient city on Mars "- (Elon Musk).


This reasoning is close to the concept of Vernadsky's noosphere (Part 11 - Vernadsky's noosphere of the Universe).

The atheist Stalin had big contradictions with both luminaries of world science: Tsiolkovsky and Vernadsky, in particular, with their theories of cosmic "divine" Reason in one form or another.

Humanity, as Tsiolkovsky believed, will populate the entire Universe and always find itself a new Sun, instead of the deceased, freely moving through outer space, in my opinion, for example, on the Moon as a large spaceship mastered by civilization, created as the first main homeostatic spaceship of civilization.

Mars can theoretically be explored as the second spaceship of civilization according to the same model. Although it is almost twice as massive as the Moon, it will be more difficult to do this.

The number of such spaceships in the spacecraft flotilla of civilization, the formation of which, in the strategic plan, must be constantly occupied by the whole of humanity, is, in principle, not limited by anything. It will be possible to try to use some large asteroids for these purposes.

This will be a new (cosmic) form of civilization in the Universe - the sixth socio-economic formation [sixth OEF] (lunar in its original essence) - "astronautical" or "information-space" OEF. It has many different names today, but that doesn't change the essence of the matter.

The United States decided to build the first long-term station on the moon by 2028 and land astronauts.

In 2020, from the $ 21 billion of the NASA budget, $ 10.7 billion was purposefully allocated to develop the lunar program itself.

NASA has received a record budget to send astronauts to the Moon in 2028. In total, up to 2028 inclusive, 14 commercial launches of SpaceX Crew Dragon and Boeing Starliner spacecraft are planned (some of them to the ISS), as well as 5 manned expeditions aboard the Orion spacecraft. The year 2028 is named the date for the landing of NASA astronauts on the moon.


Will the permanent Russian station on the Moon become a joint national multi-year program, for example, of the BRICS countries?

A permanent Russian station on the Moon may appear in the second half of this century and will resemble a honeycomb. A group of Russian scientists from various institutes have developed the concept of a permanent residential complex on a satellite of the Earth.

One of the authors of the project, a researcher at the Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INASAN), Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Vladislav LEONOV agreed to talk about it.

It will look like a honeycomb, the lunar base will be connected hexagonal modules made of basalt and regolith.

It is expensive to import construction materials from Earth, so scientists abandoned this idea. Each building will receive only one floor, but later the number will increase significantly.

At first, only 6-7 people will live on the lunar base. Then this number will increase to 12-18 settlers, and in the long term, millions of space tourists will be able to accommodate there.

To do this, it is necessary to expand the original single buildings to a whole metropolis, the area of ​​which will be at least several tens of square kilometers.


Astronauts will be the first to go to the Earth satellite to work there on a rotational basis. These specialists will solve scientific problems related to the conditions of human habitation on the Moon. Only after that will the implementation of the project begin.


- Vladislav Aleksandrovich (Leonov), what, in your opinion, are the justifications for the need to create a residential base on the Moon?

- In the current situation of active struggle of the world powers for primacy in space, Russia should not remain on the sidelines. In addition to purely scientific interests related to the study of outer space, there is another reason why many states have turned their gaze to the moon - these are the minerals and modern technologies available on it, which will allow them to soon begin to develop these deposits.

In particular, the United States does not hesitate to proclaim its priority in the development of minerals on the Moon. China, which does not agree with the US position, is also trying to build its own line by creating an International Lunar Research Station. It is not excluded that Russia will be present as a partner.

But, in my opinion, the construction of the lunar station will accelerate significantly if it becomes a joint national multi-year program, for example, of the BRICS countries. In any case, it is necessary now to work out the concept of mastering our satellite.

- What will be the first steps in creating a lunar base?

- First of all, you need to create a lunar navigation system. Since the methods of global navigation used on Earth are not suitable for the Moon, it is necessary to create a so-called selenodetic coordinate system (SSC).

It will make it possible to get by with a much smaller number of satellites and stations than, for example, the GLONASS system or the like. With its help, it is possible to land spacecraft on the lunar surface with great accuracy. Otherwise, you will have to take all the equipment delivered to the moon to the assembly point and spend a huge amount of resources on this.

- But on the "Luna-25", which starts to Selena next year, it probably will not spread yet?

- No, but it is planned to start building the SSK with it. Because an optical beacon will be installed on this device, which will become the first reference point and a prototype, it will still need to be tested and calibrated.

- Will it turn out something similar to the Earth's Greenwich Observatory, from which we measure longitude and latitude?

- In a way, so. It is planned that the "Luna-25" lighthouse will become a semblance of a geodetic, or rather, a selenodetic reference point for the origin of coordinates. In the future, it will be necessary to increase the number of such objects in order to provide a better binding to the lunar surface, and launch special "inspection" satellites.

Further, it will already be possible to proceed to the construction of objects of the lunar base. But they should not be the first infrastructure facilities on the Moon, but a cosmodrome, because its construction should solve a very serious problem associated with protection from very aggressive lunar dust.

- I heard that she has the highest penetrating ability ...

- Yes, and besides, it has very abrasive properties - each microscopic grain of sand has many sharp edges, since there is no saltation we are used to on the Moon, that is, the movement of surface masses under the influence of wind or water, as a result of which the grains of sand rub against each other and these edges are erased.

Moon dust can seriously harm humans and disable equipment. Therefore, it is very important that, when landing on the lunar surface, the engines of the descent vehicles do not raise clouds of this dust.

- How can you avoid this?

- It is proposed to use additive technologies for this, in particular, solar 3D printers, which will melt the regolith, turning it into a monolithic and very strong surface. This will allow, in the long term, when carrying out manned flights, the cosmonauts to go to a fairly clean area.

- And such a site will not be able to get dusty again?

- Maybe, of course, but the amount of dust will not be the same. And the issue of cleaning equipment and spacesuits is still not fully resolved.

- Well, the next stage will be the construction of the structures themselves for the life of the first lunar shift workers?

- Yes. And the main building material for them will be the same regolith and bedrock lunar rock - basalt, since it is unreasonably expensive to import building materials from Earth. Due to the high strength of remelted basalt and low lunar gravity, it will be possible to build structures several hundred stories high. I note that due to the absence of the atmosphere on the Moon, it is necessary to build monolithic structures in order to ensure absolute gas tightness.

- What other conditions must be taken into account when building modules?

- Modules should be erected by robots, have all the necessary comfortable conditions for life, be as safe as possible, and their design should allow them to be replicated (to create similar ones) depending on current requirements. That is, the lunar base should be able to consistently grow as the number of inhabitants and requirements for the volume of scientific laboratories grows.

- But these will definitely not be multi-storey structures ...

- Originally one-story, as building on the moon is very expensive. According to the currently most optimal preliminary design of the PLUS base (Permanent LUnar Station), which was developed by engineers, astronomers and architects from INASAN, MARHI, Moscow and Samara Polytechnic, NPO them. S.A. Lavochkin and IPKON RAS, the main blocks of the station will be hexagonal modules articulated with each other.

At the first stage, it is planned to create a base designed for permanent residence in comfortable (as far as possible for an extreme environment) conditions for 6-8 people with a possible expansion margin of up to 12-16 people. Then it is possible to expand them and increase the number of storeys. This, by the way, will also provide additional protection from radiation for the inhabitants of the lower floors.

- How will it be provided initially?

Due to the wide walls, which will reach a thickness of one meter, and additional protection. The upper floors will be a kind of pie made from melted and crushed basalt, on top of which special sintered blocks with a patented design can also be laid. This will allow you to quickly dismantle the upper layers of the slabs for the construction of new floors.

- Are you considering the creation of large settlements on the Moon?

- In the future, a megalopolis with a population of at least 1 million people will be able to accommodate on an area of ​​several tens of square kilometers, but these are already very distant prospects. At the first stage of the exploration of the Moon, these will nevertheless be small settlements in which cosmonauts will work on a watch basis and solve scientific problems related to the conditions of human habitation on the Moon. Only after that it will be possible to move on to the industrial development of our satellite, and also to raise the question of life there for a longer time.


On Earth today, the third, fourth and fifth socio-economic formations (feudal, capitalist and socialist) are slowly agonizing (beating in "death convulsions") - all together, and each separately (separately).

All of them proceeded and are proceeding from the erroneous inadequate statement and belief that the Earth will exist "forever". But, unfortunately, it will not exist forever. Only the "inadequacy" of a certain specific person can be eternal. Something cannot happen on Earth, which simply will no longer be astrophysical. (Morozov S. L. Part 15 - Apocalypse. View from Great Britain.)

World wars, by and large, have no future meaning. And the further, the more. Doesn't this striving resemble the mastery of the Earth, dying in the future, like some kind of human "inadequacy"?

What exactly can this lead to, so it is to the premature (early, anthropogenic) death of the entire civilization on Earth due to the fault of the most definite subspecies of man - "inadequate"? (Part 8 - Symbol for the End of the XXI century.)

Five terrestrial OEF (primitive communal, slave-owning, feudal, capitalist and socialist) - this is only the prehistory of civilization, it, if I can figuratively put it, - "political manure", which abundantly "fertilizes" the gradual emergence (birth) of a new sixth OEF - "astronautical "or" information-space "OEF.

And the less political adequacy in this process, the more and more this "political dung" becomes.

Supposed internal arrangement of the Moon as a homeostatic ark?

Cosmonautics in the period 2018-2023 makes a fundamental transition from I) the astronautics of adaptation to weightlessness to II) the astronautics of artificial gravity (to the idea of a "homeostatic" ark, which was proposed by me, among other things, officially in 2018).

Scientists discovered the abnormal development of quail embryos in space, and the chicks launched into orbit could not adapt to weightlessness, Vladimir Sychev, Deputy Director for Science of the Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, said in an interview with RIA Novosti. (

And what will happen to a human child born in zero gravity? Will it be able to develop normally under microgravity conditions?

One of the key organizations taking professional part in this issue in Russia is, among other things, the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Lunar landscape

Already now, it is probably necessary to think about how to supplement the bench base of the IBMP RAS with a stationary bench of the homeostatic ark with a large-radius centrifuge for simulating artificial gravity, which is absolutely necessary to overcome the "criterion of weightlessness (microgravity)" for long-term (permanent) residence of people on the Moon and on Mars as a "space man" or "backup mankind (backup of mankind)", (Krichevsky S. V. Reserve mankind // Aerospace. 2021. No. 3. P. 22 - 31).

A stationary experimental model of a homeostatic ark on Earth, intended for living on the Moon and Mars, will be further useful in the development of its mobile version for open space.

The question I raised with an empirical calculation of the "criterion of weightlessness (microgravity)" (no more than 15 ± 2.5 months of continuous being in weightlessness) was highlighted in the materials posted in the media:

- Exodus of civilization into space - Ideology of space expansion. Part 21

- Exodus of civilization into space - Homestatic ark as the main tool in space exploration strategy. Part 22

S.L. Morozov Standard 13-month I. Medler - D.I. Mendeleev - S.L. Morozov reference calendar and its application for the industrialization of space society. Monograph - M .: LLC "VASH FORMAT", 2019. - 260 p. (Rus). ISBN 978-5-907092-99-0

The originals of the materials are on the Russian-language website of Sergei Morozov "Ideology of Space Expansion"

Therefore, in my opinion, it is advisable to supplement the modern bench base of the IBMP with a stationary stand of the homeostatic ark (HA) with the simulation of artificial gravity by centrifuges of a large radius (for example: 14 m; 56 m; 225 m; 900 m; 3600 m), necessary for a long-term (constant ) stationary residence of people on the moon (and on Mars).

Probably, a whole specialized technopark is needed to fully implement this program.

Multifunctional space business park Blue Origin and Sierra Space

NASA shares this point of view that it is inappropriate for a person to be in zero gravity constantly for more than 1 year (12 months). In the US, in particular, is billionaire Bezos engaged in the creation of homeostatic arks, starting in 2020?

Blue Origin and Sierra Space are collaborating to develop Orbital Reef, a commercial and operational space station to be built in low Earth orbit and operational in the second half of this decade. Orbital Reef's team includes Boeing, Redwire Space, Genesis Engineering and Arizona State University.

Orbital Reef's human-centered space architecture is designed as a “multifunctional space business park” that provides the necessary infrastructure needed to support all human activities in space in low Earth orbit and can be scaled to serve new markets.


Image above: Professor of the University of Maryland, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Roald Sagdeev: "There is a chance to discover extraterrestrial life in space".

The US space program is probably supervised by Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Roald Sagdeev. Sagdeev married Susan Eisenhower, granddaughter of the 34th President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, a political scientist by profession, and has been living and working in the United States since 1990.

In the USSR, he was director of the Space Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1973 to 1988. He led several research projects such as the programs "Kosmos", "Forecast", "Interkosmos", "Meteor" and "Astron".

He directed and was a major participant in many space projects, including the Venera probes to Venus, the joint Soviet-American test project Soyuz Apollo, and led the International Space Project Venera-Halley (Vega) and the Phobos projects.

In 1987 and until 1991, he worked as an adviser on issues related to civil and military space issues with Mikhail Gorbachev (with whom he studied together at Moscow State University) and Eduard Shevardnadze at summits that were held in Geneva (1985), Washington, DC ( 1987) and Moscow (1988).

Sagdeev took part in the work of an analytical center headed by Gorbachev, who was tasked with finding the scientific justification for nuclear disarmament. Later, when Gorbachev became the new General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, following Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), they advised the Soviet leadership not to worry or react by creating a similar program.

Sagdeev is a professor of physics at the University of Maryland at College Park, a member of the US National Academy and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Sagdeev is a member of the Supervisory Board of the International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe. Senior Advisor to the Albright Stonebridge Group, a global strategy firm where he assists clients on issues related to Russia and the former Soviet Union.


S.L. Morozov Part 21 - Ideology of space expansion (2019).

S.L. Morozov Part 22 - Homeostatic Ark as the Main Tool in Space Exploration Strategy (2018).

S.L. Morozov Part 17 - Selenostrategy or the creation of stationary and mobile Homeostatic arks.

S.L. Morozov Asgardia's calendar and its role in the strategy of space industrialization. ROOM magazine №3 (21), 2019, pp. 66-72 (English).

The space civil digital calendar of Asgardia proposed by the author was developed precisely for the exploration of space by civilization.


The IBMP RAS still lacks such a unique space calendar of unique accuracy.

The deeply outdated "Gregorian" medieval Catholic Vatican calendar of 1582 is used, with a lag of the average tropical solar year by 27 seconds annually.

The new standardized digital civil space calendar of Asgardia works on the basis of the principle of artificial intelligence, as a space clock, universally (of the same type and synchronously) in automatic mode in the form of a standard (units of measurement of annual time), both on all objects in space and in all sentries belts on Earth simultaneously and in parallel on all moving and non-moving objects with any cosmic and non-cosmic velocities in any directions.

The calendar is autonomously self-synchronized with corrections for near-light speeds with the atomic clock of the uniform International Atomic Time (TAI).

Sergey Vladimirovich Krichevsky (Doctor of Philosophy, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Department of History of Technology and Technical Sciences of the Institute of History and Technology named after S. I. Vavilov RAS, Moscow, ex-test cosmonaut. E mail: in 2021 a book:

"Krichevsky S. V. Prospects for human space exploration. New ideas, projects, technologies. M LENAND, 2021" 320 p.

On page 214 of this book, he claims that "The limits of safe permanent stay of man in space in conditions of weightlessness (microgravity) have been reached: 1-1.5 years (12-18 months)."

Krichevsky fully agrees with the empirically calculated "criterion of weightlessness" I have cited (from 12.5 months to 17.5 months or 15 ± 2.5 months).

Many authors, starting with Tsiolkovsky, speak about the desirability of artificial gravity on a spacecraft in a long space flight.

But no one cites the "weightlessness criterion" itself in its strictly quantitative form.

For the first time it is given in quantitative form (15 ± 2.5 months) in my work, to which Krichevsky refers:

S.L. Morozov Part 22 - Homeostatic Ark as the Main Tool in Space Exploration Strategy (2018).

The SIRIUS ground-based experiment project, which is being gradually completed today at the IBMP RAS, is calculated in the last 4 stage for a maximum period of 1 year (twelve months).

Image above: The SIRIUS-21 international mixed crew consists of 6 people: crew commander Oleg Blinov, flight attendant Victoria Kirichenko (resident of Asgardia), flight engineer Ashley Kowalski, researchers William Brown, Saleh Omar Al Ameri and Ekaterina Koryakina.

Image above: IBMP RAS bench base - SIRIUS installation - Ground station, where the international experiment on isolation SIRIUS is carried out.

This period is deliberately shorter than the period of the flight of cosmonaut Valery Polyakov (14.56 months) at the Mir station and deliberately shorter than the period proposed by me purely empirically so far for the supposed "weightlessness criterion", calculated as 15 ± 2.5 months.

In addition, the modern SIRIUS project, developed by the IBMP RAS, does not contain any elements of artificial gravity and does not in any way solve the sacred issue of unlimited long-term human residence in space and, in particular, on the Moon, under conditions of microgravity on the surface of the latter.

The SIRIUS project will end on the fields of the IBMP RAS approximately in 2023. It would be logical to ensure the continuity of research, to design and build by the end of 2023 a fundamentally new bench base of the IBMP RAS, as a model of a really operating lunar manned station, on the principle of a homeostatic ark (with an artificial gravity system), equipped with a large-radius centrifuge.

Below is a link to S.V. Krichevsky "Artificial gravity for people in space: the evolution of ideas, technologies, projects", read at Moscow State University in 2021:

© Morozov S.L., 2021

Sergey Lvovich Morozov - the author of the Asgardian space calendar

Author: Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich.

List of publications on Space News (Archives):

Exodus of civilization into space - Standard space calendar of Asgardia as a reference calendar of civilization. Part 24

Exodus of civilization into space - Homestatic ark as the main tool in space exploration strategy. Part 22

Exodus of civilization into space - Ideology of space expansion. Part 21

Exodus of civilization into space - On the issue of standardization of the uniform space time of the Asgardian calendar in the AIS and the UN. Part 20

Exodus of civilization into space - The US decided to overtake China? "Plus the renewable electrification of the whole country?". Part 19.1

Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - UN Ideology in the XXI Century? Part 18.1.2

Exodus of civilization into space - Homeostatic Ark & Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars. Part 18.5

Exodus of civilization into space - American Jobs Plan. Part 18.4

Exodus of civilization into space - The space age of civilization began its new Third stage (civil). Part 18.3

Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - Ideology of the UN in the XXI Century. Part 18.2

Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - UN Ideology in the XXI Century. Part 18.1

Space Toilet and Problems of Intestinal Stick Infection. Part 17.7

Three Historical Stages of Cosmonautics Development. Part 17.6

Brief Background to Selenopolitics (Industrial Colonization of the Moon). Part 17.5

Exodus of civilization into space - Creation of the first ever mobile homeostatic ark (HA) in the USA. Part 16

Exodus of civilization into space - Apocalypse; View from the UK. Part 15

Exodus of civilization into space - Comparison of plans of NASA and Roscosmos. Part 14

The ideology of space expansion - The question of pregnancy and childbirth in zero gravity. Part 17.4

Colonization of the Moon - The source of the power, wealth and power of civilization in the Universe. Part 17.3

Space manned industrialization of the XXI century - the golden age of civilization. Part 17.2

Exodus of civilization into space - Humanity's strategy to create stationary and mobile Homeostatic arks. Part 17.1

Exodus of civilization into space - Tsiolkovsky Galactic State. Part 9

Exodus of civilization into space - Symbol of the End of the XXI century. Part 8

Exodus of civilization into space - Stopping the process of increasing value added. Part 7

Exodus of civilization into space - The sixth socio-economic formation of civilization. Part 6

Exodus of civilization into space - Space man. Part 5

Exodus of civilization into space - Biological End of the World. Part 4

Exodus of civilization into space - Geochronological Ice Ages, periods, eras. Part 3

Exodus of civilization into space - Astrophysical End of the World. Part 2

The ideology of space expansion - Space calendar. Part 1

Related links:

About Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich:

Original article in Russian on Zen.Yandex:

Asgardia website:

Author: Ph.D. & Asgardia Member of Parliament (AMP) Morozov Sergey Lvovich / Zen.Yandex. Editor / Translation: Aerospace, by Roland Berga, Asgardia Member of Parliament (AMP), Founder & Owner of Aerospace.

Best regards, (Roland Berga).

vendredi 10 décembre 2021

Ten Residents Aboard Station Wrap Up Week with Space Biology


ISS - Expedition 66 Mission patch.

Dec. 10, 2021

Space biology led the research schedule for the seven-member Expedition 66 crew aboard the International Space Station on Friday. The orbiting lab’s three guests also spent their day on a variety of Russian space experiments.

NASA Flight Engineers Mark Vande Hei and Kayla Barron partnered up throughout the day replacing components inside the Advanced Plant Habitat. Three-time station resident Thomas Marshburn of NASA prepared the Mouse Habitat Unit for upcoming rodent research.

Image above: NASA astronauts Mark Vande Hei and Kayla Barron are pictured in front of the International Space Station’s Advanced Plant Habitat. Image Credit: NASA.

Flight Engineer Matthias Maurer of ESA (European Space Agency) collected his blood sample and analyzed it using the Bio-Analyzer. At the end of the day, he joined Marshburn for retina scans conducted by NASA Flight Engineer Raja Chari using specialized imaging hardware with support from doctors on the ground.

Station commander and cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov worked on a pair of studies exploring how weightlessness affects the cardiovascular system and microbes then charged batteries inside the Soyuz MS-19 crew ship. Roscosmos Flight Engineer Pyotr Dubrov continued servicing and photographing bacteria samples for the Microvir space virus investigation.

 International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: ESA

Cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, commander of the 11-day Soyuz MS-20 mission, serviced samples for a Russian microbiology study and had an Earth photography session. The two spaceflight participants from Japan, Yusaku Maezawa and Yozo Hirano, contributed to a study that explores how space affects the circulatory system.

Related links:

Expedition 66:

Mouse Habitat Unit:

Rodent research:


Cardiovascular system:



Earth photography:

Space Station Research and Technology:

International Space Station (ISS):

Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.

Best regards,

NASA Goddard Helps Ensure Asteroid Deflector Hits Target, Predicts and Will Observe Impact Results


NASA - Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) logo.

Dec 10, 2021

Although the chance of an asteroid impacting Earth is small, even a relatively small asteroid of about 500 feet (about 150 meters) across carries enough energy to cause widespread damage around the impact site. NASA leads efforts in the U.S. and worldwide both to detect and track potentially hazardous asteroids and to study technologies to mitigate or avoid impacts on Earth. If an asteroid were discovered and determined to be on a collision course with Earth, one response could be to launch a “kinetic impactor” – a high-velocity spacecraft that would deflect the asteroid by ramming into it, altering the asteroid’s orbit slightly so that it misses Earth. NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) will be the first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection using a kinetic impactor.

Image above: An illustration of the DART spacecraft. Image Credits: NASA/John Hopkins APL.

DART will test kinetic impactor technology by targeting a double asteroid that is not on a path to collide with Earth and therefore poses no actual threat to the planet. The system is composed of two asteroids: the larger asteroid Didymos (diameter: 780 meters, 0.48 miles), and the smaller moonlet asteroid, Dimorphos (diameter: 160 meters, 525 feet), which orbits the larger asteroid. DART, which launched Wednesday, Nov. 24 at 1:21 a.m. EST on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex 4 East at Vandenberg Space Force Base in California, will slam into Dimorphos nearly head-on, shortening the time it takes the small asteroid moonlet to orbit Didymos by several minutes. The mission is led by the Johns Hopkins  Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland for NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office and has support from several NASA centers.

Scientists and engineers at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, are checking the flight path of the mission and running computer simulations that predict how the impact might change Dimorphos’ orbit. The team will also make telescopic observations to determine the amount and composition of dust and volatiles (easily vaporized material) released during the impact.

“We are an independent check on the mission's trajectory calculations,” said Brent Barbee, dynamics verification and validation lead and DART flight dynamics support lead at Goddard. Goddard used its in-house-developed Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) to provide independent verification and validation of the DART mission trajectories at various stages of the mission’s development and evaluate the ability of the mission to adapt to missed thrust and other contingencies.

“We also used the EMTG to support independent trajectory optimization studies for DART. These studies assessed the best flight paths for the spacecraft given its goals, capabilities, and limitations,” said Bruno Sarli of Goddard and Heliospace Corporation, Berkeley, California, a member of the DART trajectory optimization team.

Goddard scientists are also helping to calculate how the impact will change the orbit of Dimorphos, using a specialized binary (double) asteroid dynamics simulation code developed by the mission's investigation team to model the orbital and rotational motion of the Didymos system. The Goddard group curated a version of the tool for the DART mission, adding features and functionality. “Our simulation results shed light on how DART's impact will change the dynamics of the system in ways that are detectable via remote observations,” said Barbee.

“Prior to launch, these simulations helped verify that the DART impact would meet mission requirements even in impact circumstances that are not ideal,” adds Joshua Lyzhoft of Goddard, who performs dynamics simulation development, modeling, and analysis for DART. “We will also be updating the simulations during the mission using observations to help ascertain how much DART's impact changed the momentum of Dimorphos, which is an important goal of the mission.”

The double asteroid dynamics algorithms and code are very complex and computationally intensive, according to the team. “One of the important features Goddard added to the code is the ability to execute it using parallel distributed computing so that the simulations complete in reasonable amounts of time,” said Barbee. “When the system is observed post-impact that will be the first time such impact effects are observed and the first time such observations will be compared to and used to calibrate dynamics simulations for a double asteroid.”

NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) impact. Animation Credit: ESA

The spacecraft will intercept Didymos’ moonlet in late September 2022, when the Didymos system is within about 6.8 million miles (11 million kilometers) of Earth, enabling observations by ground-based telescopes and planetary radar to measure the change in momentum imparted to the moonlet.

Goddard scientists will be performing additional observations to add to the mission’s scientific return. “We’ll determine the amount of dust released during impact, as well as the amount and nature of any potential volatiles, through high-resolution radio-telescope observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) as well as other radio (millimeter/submillimeter) facilities,” said Stefanie Milam of Goddard, who is part of the DART supporting observations working group and co-investigator on the ALMA program. “Additionally, there will be observations with the James Webb Space Telescope of Didymos during and after impact to also monitor dust released during the event.” Milam also supports the Webb Guaranteed Time Observations team (PI: Thomas/NAU).

“The dust and volatile observations from Webb (near-infrared wavelengths) and ALMA (submillimeter wavelengths) will help us to understand the composition of the asteroid as well as the speed, direction, and nature of the material ejected by the impact,” said Nathan Roth of Goddard, also a member of the DART supporting observations working group and principal investigator of the ALMA program. “Based on the brightness of the asteroid at each wavelength, we’ll be able to understand the size distribution of dust particles in the ejecta. With high-resolution imaging from Webb, we’ll be able to understand jets or other structures in the ejecta. With molecular spectroscopy (analysis of light released by molecules) from ALMA, we’ll be able to measure the content of any trace ices present beneath the surface of Dimorphos as well as any gas-phase molecules produced by the impact.”

More about the mission and partners:

The binary asteroid simulation dynamics code was developed jointly by DART's Dynamics Working Group, which is led by Prof. Derek Richardson of the University of Maryland, College Park. The core code was originally developed by Alex B. Davis and Daniel J. Scheeres at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who are also members of the Dynamics Working Group. DART’s Observations Working Group is chaired by Prof. Cristina Thomas of Northern Arizona University.

Johns Hopkins APL manages the DART mission for NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office as a project of the agency’s Planetary Missions Program Office. NASA provides support for the mission from several centers, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Johnson Space Center in Houston, Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, and Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The launch is managed by NASA’s Launch Services Program, based at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. SpaceX is the launch services provider for the DART mission.

Related links:

NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART):

Johns Hopkins  Applied Physics Laboratory (APL):

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC):

Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/GSFC/Bill Steigerwald.


Space Station Science Highlights: Week of December 6, 2021


ISS - Expedition 66 Mission patch.

Dec 10, 2021

Crew members aboard the International Space Station conducted scientific investigations during the week of Dec. 6 that included testing operational support from artificial intelligence, monitoring changes in the vascular system, and demonstrating a heat transfer system.

The space station has been continuously inhabited by humans for 21 years, supporting many scientific breakthroughs. The orbiting lab provides a platform for long-duration research in microgravity and for learning to live and work in space, experience that supports Artemis, NASA’s program to go forward to the Moon and on to Mars.

Image above: This image shows the south Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand from the seven-windowed cupola as the International Space Station orbits 267 miles above. Image Credit: NASA.

Here are details on some of the microgravity investigations currently taking place:

A little help, please

A technology demonstration from ESA (European Space Agency), Cimon examines how support from an artificial intelligence (AI) assistant affects crew efficiency and acceptance. Long-term spaceflight missions involve a heavy workload and can create a substantial amount of stress for crew members. Operational support from an AI assistant like Cimon could help crew members complete more tasks, allowing more time for relaxation and reducing stress during flight. During the week, crew members set up and activated the Cimon hardware.

Analyzing aging arteries

Astronauts return to Earth with carotid arteries that appear “older” than when they launched, and daily aerobic or cardio exercise sessions may not be sufficient to counteract this effect. An investigation from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Vascular Aging, analyzes these changes using artery ultrasounds, blood samples, oral glucose tolerance testing, and wearable sensors. Results could help researchers assess the risks to astronaut cardiovascular health and potentially point to mechanisms to reduce those risks. The investigation also may provide insight to guide investigation of increased arterial stiffness associated with aging on Earth. Crew members performed scans and blood pressure measurements for the investigation during the week with guidance from the ground team.  

Boiling off the heat

Animation above: NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei works on FBCE, an investigation that tests a two-phase heat transfer system in microgravity. Animation Credit: NASA.

Longer space missions need to generate more power, which will produce more heat that must be dissipated from the spacecraft. Single-phase heat transfer systems currently in use employ a liquid such as water or ammonia to remove heat from one location and move it to another, with the liquid remaining in the same phase. Two-phase systems use the source of heat to boil the liquid, changing the liquid into another phase, a gas, through vaporization. Vaporization and condensation exchange more heat energy, so a two-phase system can be smaller and provide more efficient heat removal than a one-phase system. FBCE tests two-phase heat transfer in microgravity, collecting data to help validate numerical simulation tools for use in designing these systems. This research is a joint effort between the Purdue University Boiling and Two-Phase Flow Laboratory (BTPFL) and the NASA Glenn Research Center. During the week, crew members configured the station’s Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), installed FBCE hardware, and conducted operations for the investigation.

Other investigations involving the crew:

Image above: ESA astronaut Matthias Maurer holds an array of surfaces for Touching Surfaces, an investigation that seeks to determine the most suitable design for antimicrobial surfaces for spacecraft and habitats. Image Credit: NASA.

- Touching Surfaces tests antimicrobial surfaces as a method for reducing microbial contamination aboard the space station. Results from this ESA investigation could help determine the most suitable design for antimicrobial surfaces for spacecraft and habitats  as well as for terrestrial applications such as public transportation and clinical settings.

- RFID Recon tests using a wireless radio frequency identification (RFID) reader to identify tagged cargo and determine its location on the space station. This technology could help crew members find items more quickly and efficiently.

- T2 AR tests using augmented reality (AR) to help crew members inspect and maintain the space station’s T2 Treadmill. On future space missions, crew members need to perform such tasks without assistance from the ground due to significant time delays in communications, and AR assistance also could improve crew safety.

- Airborne Particulate Monitor (APM) measures and quantifies the concentration of small and large particles in spacecraft air. These data can be used to create a map of particles, helping to maintain cabin air quality and protect astronaut health.

- Four Bed CO2 Scrubber demonstrates technology to remove carbon dioxide from a spacecraft, one of three such demonstrations for the space station’s Exploration Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Carbon dioxide removal systems in future spacecraft are key to helping to maintain the health of crews and ensure mission success.

- JEM Water Recovery System, an investigation from Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), tests a technology to increase the recovery of drinkable water from urine, which could become a vital part of ECLSS for future space travel and also provide water regeneration in dry regions or post-disaster on Earth.

- InSPACE-4 studies magnetic assembly of structures from colloids, or particles suspended in a liquid in microgravity. Results could lead to more advanced materials for space applications, including thermal shields, protection from micrometeorites, energy production, and sensors for robotic and human missions.

- ReSWARM demonstrates autonomous on-orbit robotic activity, testing coordination among multiple robots, robots and cargo, and robots and the environment in which they operate. The investigation uses the station’s free-flying Astrobee robots.

- ISS Ham Radio provides students, teachers, parents, and others the opportunity to communicate with astronauts using ham radio units. Before a scheduled call, students learn about the station, radio waves, and other topics, and prepare a list of questions on topics they have researched.

Space to Ground: December Arrivals: 12/10/2021

Related links:

Expedition 66:


Vascular Aging:


Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR):

ISS National Lab:

Spot the Station:

Space Station Research and Technology:

International Space Station (ISS):

Images (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Video (NASA), Text, Credits: NASA/Carrie Gilder/John Love, ISS Research Planning Integration Scientist Expedition 66.

Best regards,

NASA’s ‘Eyes on Asteroids’ Reveals Our Near-Earth Object Neighborhood


Asteroid Watch logo.

Dec 10, 2021

Learn more about the growing population of near-Earth objects with NASA’s new 3D real-time web-based application.

Image above: With NASA’s Eyes on Asteroids, you can watch all the known near-Earth asteroids and comets as they orbit the Sun. Updated twice daily with the latest tracking data, the web-based application will automatically add new near-Earth object discoveries for you to explore. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Through a new 3D real-time visualization tool, you can now explore the asteroids and comets that approach Earth’s orbital neighborhood – and the spacecraft that visit these objects – with a click or a swipe. NASA’s Eyes on Asteroids brings this data to any smartphone, tablet, or computer with an internet connection – no download required:

Thousands of asteroids and dozens of comets are discovered every single year, some of which – called near-Earth objects (NEOs) – follow orbits that pass through the inner solar system. Now totaling about 28,000, their numbers rising daily, these objects are tracked carefully by NASA-funded astronomers in case any might pose an impact threat to our planet.

The new web-based app depicts the orbits of every known NEO, providing detailed information on those objects. Using the slider at the bottom of the screen, you can travel quickly forward and backward through time to see their orbital motions. The visualization receives twice-daily updates with the latest data, so as soon as a new object is discovered and its orbit is calculated, it’s added to the app.

The profiles for many NEO missions can also be explored. Select the “events” tab to view detailed animated models of those spacecraft and their asteroid or comet encounters. For example, search for NASA’s OSIRIS-REx (short for Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer) spacecraft to view an animated re-creation of the mission’s Oct. 20, 2020, Touch-And-Go (TAG) sample collection event. Or view NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) mission, which recently launched as NASA’s first planetary defense demonstration, and even fast-forward to Sept. 26, 2022, when it will impact the asteroid Dimorphos, the small moonlet of the Didymos binary asteroid system.

“We wanted Eyes on Asteroids to be as user-friendly as possible while telling the stories about humanity’s exploration of these fascinating objects,” said Jason Craig, technical producer of the Visualization Technology Applications and Development team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, which developed Eyes. “Every NEO can be found inside the app, as can most of the spacecraft that have visited these objects.”

NEOs asteroid

There’s also plenty of detail on the fascinating science behind NEOs and the importance of tracking potentially hazardous objects. Just select “Learn” for details on topics like asteroid close approaches to Earth or to fly along with the dramatic close approach of asteroid Apophis on April 13, 2029.

While you’re on the topic, choose the “Asteroid Watch” tab to see the next five asteroid close approaches. “We were keen to include this feature, as asteroid close approaches often generate a lot of interest,” said Craig. “The headlines often depict these close approaches as ‘dangerously’ close, but users will see by using Eyes just how distant most of these encounters really are.”

Eyes on Asteroids was developed with support from NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office at the agency’s headquarters in Washington and from JPL’s Center for Near-Earth Object Studies. Eyes gathers its data from JPL’s Solar System Dynamics database, which provides real-time data for the orbits, characteristics, and discovery of most known natural bodies (including NEOs) in our solar system. For asteroid and comet news and updates, follow @AsteroidWatch on Twitter.

Related links:

NASA’s Eyes on Asteroids:

NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office:

JPL’s Center for Near-Earth Object Studies:

JPL’s Solar System Dynamics:

Image (mentioned), Animation, Text, Credits: NASA/Naomi Hartono/JPL/Ian J. O’Neill.

Best regards,

DeepMind AI tackles one of chemistry’s most valuable techniques


DeepMind logo.

Dec. 10, 2021

Machine-learning algorithm predicts material properties using electron density.

A team led by scientists at the London-based artificial-intelligence company DeepMind has developed a machine-learning model that suggests a molecule’s characteristics by predicting the distribution of electrons within it. The approach, described in the 10 December issue of Science (1), can calculate the properties of some molecules more accurately than existing techniques.

Image above: The AI predicts the distribution of electrons within a molecule (illustration) and uses it to calculate physical properties. Image Credit: DeepMind.

“To make it as accurate as they have done is a feat,” says Anatole von Lilienfeld, a materials scientist at the University of Vienna.

The paper is “a solid piece of work”, says Katarzyna Pernal, a computational chemist at Lodz University of Technology in Poland. But she adds that the machine-learning model has a long way to go before it can be useful for computational chemists.

Predicting properties

In principle, the structure of materials and molecules is entirely determined by quantum mechanics, and specifically by the Schrödinger equation, which governs the behaviour of electron wavefunctions. These are the mathematical gadgets that describe the probability of finding a particular electron at a particular position in space. But because all the electrons interact with one another, calculating the structure or molecular orbitals from such first principles is a computational nightmare, and can be done only for the simplest molecules, such as benzene, says James Kirkpatrick, a physicist at DeepMind.

To get around this problem, researchers — from pharmacologists to battery engineers — whose work relies on discovering or developing new molecules have for decades relied on a set of techniques called density functional theory (DFT) to predict molecules’ physical properties. The theory does not attempt to model individual electrons, but instead aims to calculate the overall distribution of the electrons’ negative electric charge across the molecule. “DFT looks at the average charge density, so it doesn’t know what individual electrons are,” says Kirkpatrick. Most properties of matter can then be easily calculated from that density.

Since its beginnings in the 1960s, DFT has become one of the most widely used techniques in the physical sciences: an investigation by Nature’s news team in 2014 found that, of the top 100 most-cited papers, 12 were about DFT. Modern databases of materials’ properties, such as the Materials Project, consist to a large extent of DFT calculations.

But the approach has limitations, and is known to give the wrong results for certain types of molecule, even some as simple as sodium chloride. And although DFT calculations are vastly more efficient than those that start from basic quantum theory, they are still cumbersome and often require supercomputers. So, in the past decade, theoretical chemists have increasingly started to experiment with machine learning, in particular to study properties such as materials’ chemical reactivity or their ability to conduct heat.

Ideal problem

The DeepMind team has made probably the most ambitious attempt yet to deploy AI to calculate electron density, the end result of DFT calculations. “It’s sort of the ideal problem for machine learning: you know the answer, but not the formula you want to apply,” says Aron Cohen, a theoretical chemist who has long worked on DFT and who is now at DeepMind.

The team trained an artificial neural network on data from 1,161 accurate solutions derived from the Schrödinger equations. To improve accuracy, they also hard-wired some of the known laws of physics into the network. They then tested the trained system on a set of molecules that are often used as a benchmark for DFT, and the results were impressive, says von Lilienfeld. “This is the best the community has managed to come up with, and they beat it by a margin,” he says.

One advantage of machine learning, von Lilienfeld adds, is that although it takes a massive amount of computing power to train the models, that process needs to be done only once. Individual predictions can then be done on a regular laptop, vastly reducing their cost and carbon footprint, compared with having to perform the calculations from scratch every time.

Kirkpatrick and Cohen say that DeepMind is releasing their trained system for anyone to use. For now, the model applies mostly to molecules and not to the crystal structures of materials, but future versions could work for materials, too, the authors say.



1. Kirkpatrick, J. et al. Science 374, 1385–1389 (2021).

Related article:

DeepMind’s AI helps untangle the mathematics of knots

Image (mentioned), Text, Credits: Nature/Davide Castelvecchi.