Humanity Space Expansion logo.
Dec. 11, 2021
Sergey Lvovich Morozov, Candidate of Medical Sciences, email@example.com
THE MOON AS THE MAIN SPACE SHIP OF CIVILIZATION?
SELENIC STRATEGY AS A STRATEGY OF THE INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS (IBMP) RAS?
The moon - as the first spaceship of earthly civilization?
The exodus of civilization from the Earth has no alternative. This is not a matter of choice, it is a concept of sad inevitability. Although today few people think about the fact that the Earth, as a planet, will, unfortunately, be absorbed in history by the crown of the Sun and physically cease to exist, while biological life will end on the surface of the Earth much earlier than its astrophysical death along with humanity, as unique view?
An analysis of scientific world literature and concrete practice leads to the conclusion that humanity, as a species, is temporarily on Earth. Tsiolkovsky wrote about this.
What is preventing us from starting to create a new "Galactic State" on Earth according to the Tsiolkovsky model? (Part 9 - Tsiolkovsky Galactic State.)
Humanity will disappear from world history if it does not have time to move to a permanent place of residence from the Earth into space, and first of all to the Moon, which can easily be turned into the first main homeostatic ark and into the first main saving mobile spaceship for the entire earthly civilization (peculiar in the literal sense of the "Kingdom of Heaven"?), - for a whole range of reasons. I have summarized them in five short articles on my personal site since 2018, translated into English.
S.L. Morozov Part 1 - Biblical End of the World.
S.L. Morozov Part 2 - Astrophysical End of the World.
S.L. Morozov Part 3 - Geochronological end of the world. Ice ages, periods, eras.
S.L. Morozov Part 4 - Biological End of the World.
S.L. Morozov Part 15 - Apocalypse. View from the UK.
The meaning of life and the meaning of the very existence of civilization on Earth is, therefore, the creation of conditions for the permanent residence of a person in space and on the Moon in the first place (and only after that on Mars and elsewhere in the Universe)?
According to NASA, the stable presence of man on the moon will make it possible to set the next target - Mars.
Is the Moon intended by Nature itself to become the first place of permanent residence of Mankind after the Earth?
Why does the Moon have a clear preference as the main contender for the space "Noah's Ark" of earthly civilization? The development by DC United Space Structures (USA) of a minimum-size station with artificial gravity, which must be created to replace the modern ISS - like a "homeostatic ark", - according to calculations, will require a payload with a mass of at least 10 million tons. Protection against cosmic radiation must be very reliable.
Homeostatic Ark - DC United Space Structures development intended to replace the ISS
Naturally, the task of delivering such a gigantic cargo to orbit cannot be performed purely technically, given the current level of technological development of the space industry. Therefore, you need to build the first homeostatic ark right on the moon. This can be done at the current level of development of space technology.
On the Moon, it is easy to make multi-ton protection from any level of cosmic radiation using an unlimited amount of lunar soil and the depth of the station from the surface of the Moon. ... This massive space radiation shield will not need to be carried from Earth. The station itself is easy to fix on the ground.
S.L. Morozov Part 21 - Ideology of space expansion (2019).
This is the whole point of the "Selenostrategy" I proposed, - in the transformation of the Moon into the first main homeostatic self-sufficient spaceship of civilization, freely moving with people in the Universe at cosmic speeds. People will become a permanent intelligent part of the Universe.
“I think that going to Mars is not a fundamental issue. The fundamental question is the construction of a base, a self-sufficient city on Mars "- (Elon Musk).
This reasoning is close to the concept of Vernadsky's noosphere (Part 11 - Vernadsky's noosphere of the Universe).
The atheist Stalin had big contradictions with both luminaries of world science: Tsiolkovsky and Vernadsky, in particular, with their theories of cosmic "divine" Reason in one form or another.
Humanity, as Tsiolkovsky believed, will populate the entire Universe and always find itself a new Sun, instead of the deceased, freely moving through outer space, in my opinion, for example, on the Moon as a large spaceship mastered by civilization, created as the first main homeostatic spaceship of civilization.
Mars can theoretically be explored as the second spaceship of civilization according to the same model. Although it is almost twice as massive as the Moon, it will be more difficult to do this.
The number of such spaceships in the spacecraft flotilla of civilization, the formation of which, in the strategic plan, must be constantly occupied by the whole of humanity, is, in principle, not limited by anything. It will be possible to try to use some large asteroids for these purposes.
This will be a new (cosmic) form of civilization in the Universe - the sixth socio-economic formation [sixth OEF] (lunar in its original essence) - "astronautical" or "information-space" OEF. It has many different names today, but that doesn't change the essence of the matter.
The United States decided to build the first long-term station on the moon by 2028 and land astronauts.
In 2020, from the $ 21 billion of the NASA budget, $ 10.7 billion was purposefully allocated to develop the lunar program itself.
NASA has received a record budget to send astronauts to the Moon in 2028. In total, up to 2028 inclusive, 14 commercial launches of SpaceX Crew Dragon and Boeing Starliner spacecraft are planned (some of them to the ISS), as well as 5 manned expeditions aboard the Orion spacecraft. The year 2028 is named the date for the landing of NASA astronauts on the moon.
Will the permanent Russian station on the Moon become a joint national multi-year program, for example, of the BRICS countries?
A permanent Russian station on the Moon may appear in the second half of this century and will resemble a honeycomb. A group of Russian scientists from various institutes have developed the concept of a permanent residential complex on a satellite of the Earth.
One of the authors of the project, a researcher at the Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INASAN), Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Vladislav LEONOV agreed to talk about it.
It will look like a honeycomb, the lunar base will be connected hexagonal modules made of basalt and regolith.
It is expensive to import construction materials from Earth, so scientists abandoned this idea. Each building will receive only one floor, but later the number will increase significantly.
At first, only 6-7 people will live on the lunar base. Then this number will increase to 12-18 settlers, and in the long term, millions of space tourists will be able to accommodate there.
To do this, it is necessary to expand the original single buildings to a whole metropolis, the area of which will be at least several tens of square kilometers.
Astronauts will be the first to go to the Earth satellite to work there on a rotational basis. These specialists will solve scientific problems related to the conditions of human habitation on the Moon. Only after that will the implementation of the project begin.
- Vladislav Aleksandrovich (Leonov), what, in your opinion, are the justifications for the need to create a residential base on the Moon?
- In the current situation of active struggle of the world powers for primacy in space, Russia should not remain on the sidelines. In addition to purely scientific interests related to the study of outer space, there is another reason why many states have turned their gaze to the moon - these are the minerals and modern technologies available on it, which will allow them to soon begin to develop these deposits.
In particular, the United States does not hesitate to proclaim its priority in the development of minerals on the Moon. China, which does not agree with the US position, is also trying to build its own line by creating an International Lunar Research Station. It is not excluded that Russia will be present as a partner.
But, in my opinion, the construction of the lunar station will accelerate significantly if it becomes a joint national multi-year program, for example, of the BRICS countries. In any case, it is necessary now to work out the concept of mastering our satellite.
- What will be the first steps in creating a lunar base?
- First of all, you need to create a lunar navigation system. Since the methods of global navigation used on Earth are not suitable for the Moon, it is necessary to create a so-called selenodetic coordinate system (SSC).
It will make it possible to get by with a much smaller number of satellites and stations than, for example, the GLONASS system or the like. With its help, it is possible to land spacecraft on the lunar surface with great accuracy. Otherwise, you will have to take all the equipment delivered to the moon to the assembly point and spend a huge amount of resources on this.
- But on the "Luna-25", which starts to Selena next year, it probably will not spread yet?
- No, but it is planned to start building the SSK with it. Because an optical beacon will be installed on this device, which will become the first reference point and a prototype, it will still need to be tested and calibrated.
- Will it turn out something similar to the Earth's Greenwich Observatory, from which we measure longitude and latitude?
- In a way, so. It is planned that the "Luna-25" lighthouse will become a semblance of a geodetic, or rather, a selenodetic reference point for the origin of coordinates. In the future, it will be necessary to increase the number of such objects in order to provide a better binding to the lunar surface, and launch special "inspection" satellites.
Further, it will already be possible to proceed to the construction of objects of the lunar base. But they should not be the first infrastructure facilities on the Moon, but a cosmodrome, because its construction should solve a very serious problem associated with protection from very aggressive lunar dust.
- I heard that she has the highest penetrating ability ...
- Yes, and besides, it has very abrasive properties - each microscopic grain of sand has many sharp edges, since there is no saltation we are used to on the Moon, that is, the movement of surface masses under the influence of wind or water, as a result of which the grains of sand rub against each other and these edges are erased.
Moon dust can seriously harm humans and disable equipment. Therefore, it is very important that, when landing on the lunar surface, the engines of the descent vehicles do not raise clouds of this dust.
- How can you avoid this?
- It is proposed to use additive technologies for this, in particular, solar 3D printers, which will melt the regolith, turning it into a monolithic and very strong surface. This will allow, in the long term, when carrying out manned flights, the cosmonauts to go to a fairly clean area.
- And such a site will not be able to get dusty again?
- Maybe, of course, but the amount of dust will not be the same. And the issue of cleaning equipment and spacesuits is still not fully resolved.
- Well, the next stage will be the construction of the structures themselves for the life of the first lunar shift workers?
- Yes. And the main building material for them will be the same regolith and bedrock lunar rock - basalt, since it is unreasonably expensive to import building materials from Earth. Due to the high strength of remelted basalt and low lunar gravity, it will be possible to build structures several hundred stories high. I note that due to the absence of the atmosphere on the Moon, it is necessary to build monolithic structures in order to ensure absolute gas tightness.
- What other conditions must be taken into account when building modules?
- Modules should be erected by robots, have all the necessary comfortable conditions for life, be as safe as possible, and their design should allow them to be replicated (to create similar ones) depending on current requirements. That is, the lunar base should be able to consistently grow as the number of inhabitants and requirements for the volume of scientific laboratories grows.
- But these will definitely not be multi-storey structures ...
- Originally one-story, as building on the moon is very expensive. According to the currently most optimal preliminary design of the PLUS base (Permanent LUnar Station), which was developed by engineers, astronomers and architects from INASAN, MARHI, Moscow and Samara Polytechnic, NPO them. S.A. Lavochkin and IPKON RAS, the main blocks of the station will be hexagonal modules articulated with each other.
At the first stage, it is planned to create a base designed for permanent residence in comfortable (as far as possible for an extreme environment) conditions for 6-8 people with a possible expansion margin of up to 12-16 people. Then it is possible to expand them and increase the number of storeys. This, by the way, will also provide additional protection from radiation for the inhabitants of the lower floors.
- How will it be provided initially?
Due to the wide walls, which will reach a thickness of one meter, and additional protection. The upper floors will be a kind of pie made from melted and crushed basalt, on top of which special sintered blocks with a patented design can also be laid. This will allow you to quickly dismantle the upper layers of the slabs for the construction of new floors.
- Are you considering the creation of large settlements on the Moon?
- In the future, a megalopolis with a population of at least 1 million people will be able to accommodate on an area of several tens of square kilometers, but these are already very distant prospects. At the first stage of the exploration of the Moon, these will nevertheless be small settlements in which cosmonauts will work on a watch basis and solve scientific problems related to the conditions of human habitation on the Moon. Only after that it will be possible to move on to the industrial development of our satellite, and also to raise the question of life there for a longer time.
On Earth today, the third, fourth and fifth socio-economic formations (feudal, capitalist and socialist) are slowly agonizing (beating in "death convulsions") - all together, and each separately (separately).
All of them proceeded and are proceeding from the erroneous inadequate statement and belief that the Earth will exist "forever". But, unfortunately, it will not exist forever. Only the "inadequacy" of a certain specific person can be eternal. Something cannot happen on Earth, which simply will no longer be astrophysical. (Morozov S. L. Part 15 - Apocalypse. View from Great Britain.)
World wars, by and large, have no future meaning. And the further, the more. Doesn't this striving resemble the mastery of the Earth, dying in the future, like some kind of human "inadequacy"?
What exactly can this lead to, so it is to the premature (early, anthropogenic) death of the entire civilization on Earth due to the fault of the most definite subspecies of man - "inadequate"? (Part 8 - Symbol for the End of the XXI century.)
Five terrestrial OEF (primitive communal, slave-owning, feudal, capitalist and socialist) - this is only the prehistory of civilization, it, if I can figuratively put it, - "political manure", which abundantly "fertilizes" the gradual emergence (birth) of a new sixth OEF - "astronautical "or" information-space "OEF.
And the less political adequacy in this process, the more and more this "political dung" becomes.
Supposed internal arrangement of the Moon as a homeostatic ark?
Cosmonautics in the period 2018-2023 makes a fundamental transition from I) the astronautics of adaptation to weightlessness to II) the astronautics of artificial gravity (to the idea of a "homeostatic" ark, which was proposed by me, among other things, officially in 2018).
Scientists discovered the abnormal development of quail embryos in space, and the chicks launched into orbit could not adapt to weightlessness, Vladimir Sychev, Deputy Director for Science of the Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, said in an interview with RIA Novosti. (https://ria.ru/20211025/kosmos-1756081422.html).
And what will happen to a human child born in zero gravity? Will it be able to develop normally under microgravity conditions?
One of the key organizations taking professional part in this issue in Russia is, among other things, the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Already now, it is probably necessary to think about how to supplement the bench base of the IBMP RAS with a stationary bench of the homeostatic ark with a large-radius centrifuge for simulating artificial gravity, which is absolutely necessary to overcome the "criterion of weightlessness (microgravity)" for long-term (permanent) residence of people on the Moon and on Mars as a "space man" or "backup mankind (backup of mankind)", (Krichevsky S. V. Reserve mankind // Aerospace. 2021. No. 3. P. 22 - 31).
A stationary experimental model of a homeostatic ark on Earth, intended for living on the Moon and Mars, will be further useful in the development of its mobile version for open space.
The question I raised with an empirical calculation of the "criterion of weightlessness (microgravity)" (no more than 15 ± 2.5 months of continuous being in weightlessness) was highlighted in the materials posted in the media:
- Exodus of civilization into space - Ideology of space expansion. Part 21
- Exodus of civilization into space - Homestatic ark as the main tool in space exploration strategy. Part 22
S.L. Morozov Standard 13-month I. Medler - D.I. Mendeleev - S.L. Morozov reference calendar and its application for the industrialization of space society. Monograph - M .: LLC "VASH FORMAT", 2019. - 260 p. (Rus). ISBN 978-5-907092-99-0
The originals of the materials are on the Russian-language website of Sergei Morozov "Ideology of Space Expansion" https://zen.yandex.ru/id/5fbb90753e3ad265054f930a
Therefore, in my opinion, it is advisable to supplement the modern bench base of the IBMP with a stationary stand of the homeostatic ark (HA) with the simulation of artificial gravity by centrifuges of a large radius (for example: 14 m; 56 m; 225 m; 900 m; 3600 m), necessary for a long-term (constant ) stationary residence of people on the moon (and on Mars).
Probably, a whole specialized technopark is needed to fully implement this program.
Multifunctional space business park Blue Origin and Sierra Space
NASA shares this point of view that it is inappropriate for a person to be in zero gravity constantly for more than 1 year (12 months). In the US, in particular, is billionaire Bezos engaged in the creation of homeostatic arks, starting in 2020?
Blue Origin and Sierra Space are collaborating to develop Orbital Reef, a commercial and operational space station to be built in low Earth orbit and operational in the second half of this decade. Orbital Reef's team includes Boeing, Redwire Space, Genesis Engineering and Arizona State University.
Orbital Reef's human-centered space architecture is designed as a “multifunctional space business park” that provides the necessary infrastructure needed to support all human activities in space in low Earth orbit and can be scaled to serve new markets.
Image above: Professor of the University of Maryland, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Roald Sagdeev: "There is a chance to discover extraterrestrial life in space".
The US space program is probably supervised by Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Roald Sagdeev. Sagdeev married Susan Eisenhower, granddaughter of the 34th President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, a political scientist by profession, and has been living and working in the United States since 1990.
In the USSR, he was director of the Space Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1973 to 1988. He led several research projects such as the programs "Kosmos", "Forecast", "Interkosmos", "Meteor" and "Astron".
He directed and was a major participant in many space projects, including the Venera probes to Venus, the joint Soviet-American test project Soyuz Apollo, and led the International Space Project Venera-Halley (Vega) and the Phobos projects.
In 1987 and until 1991, he worked as an adviser on issues related to civil and military space issues with Mikhail Gorbachev (with whom he studied together at Moscow State University) and Eduard Shevardnadze at summits that were held in Geneva (1985), Washington, DC ( 1987) and Moscow (1988).
Sagdeev took part in the work of an analytical center headed by Gorbachev, who was tasked with finding the scientific justification for nuclear disarmament. Later, when Gorbachev became the new General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, following Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), they advised the Soviet leadership not to worry or react by creating a similar program.
Sagdeev is a professor of physics at the University of Maryland at College Park, a member of the US National Academy and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Sagdeev is a member of the Supervisory Board of the International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe. Senior Advisor to the Albright Stonebridge Group, a global strategy firm where he assists clients on issues related to Russia and the former Soviet Union.
S.L. Morozov Part 21 - Ideology of space expansion (2019).
S.L. Morozov Part 22 - Homeostatic Ark as the Main Tool in Space Exploration Strategy (2018).
S.L. Morozov Part 17 - Selenostrategy or the creation of stationary and mobile Homeostatic arks.
S.L. Morozov Asgardia's calendar and its role in the strategy of space industrialization. ROOM magazine №3 (21), 2019, pp. 66-72 (English).
The space civil digital calendar of Asgardia proposed by the author was developed precisely for the exploration of space by civilization.
The IBMP RAS still lacks such a unique space calendar of unique accuracy.
The deeply outdated "Gregorian" medieval Catholic Vatican calendar of 1582 is used, with a lag of the average tropical solar year by 27 seconds annually.
The new standardized digital civil space calendar of Asgardia works on the basis of the principle of artificial intelligence, as a space clock, universally (of the same type and synchronously) in automatic mode in the form of a standard (units of measurement of annual time), both on all objects in space and in all sentries belts on Earth simultaneously and in parallel on all moving and non-moving objects with any cosmic and non-cosmic velocities in any directions.
The calendar is autonomously self-synchronized with corrections for near-light speeds with the atomic clock of the uniform International Atomic Time (TAI).
Sergey Vladimirovich Krichevsky (Doctor of Philosophy, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Department of History of Technology and Technical Sciences of the Institute of History and Technology named after S. I. Vavilov RAS, Moscow, ex-test cosmonaut. E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) in 2021 a book:
"Krichevsky S. V. Prospects for human space exploration. New ideas, projects, technologies. M LENAND, 2021" 320 p.
On page 214 of this book, he claims that "The limits of safe permanent stay of man in space in conditions of weightlessness (microgravity) have been reached: 1-1.5 years (12-18 months)."
Krichevsky fully agrees with the empirically calculated "criterion of weightlessness" I have cited (from 12.5 months to 17.5 months or 15 ± 2.5 months).
Many authors, starting with Tsiolkovsky, speak about the desirability of artificial gravity on a spacecraft in a long space flight.
But no one cites the "weightlessness criterion" itself in its strictly quantitative form.
For the first time it is given in quantitative form (15 ± 2.5 months) in my work, to which Krichevsky refers:
S.L. Morozov Part 22 - Homeostatic Ark as the Main Tool in Space Exploration Strategy (2018).
The SIRIUS ground-based experiment project, which is being gradually completed today at the IBMP RAS, is calculated in the last 4 stage for a maximum period of 1 year (twelve months).
Image above: The SIRIUS-21 international mixed crew consists of 6 people: crew commander Oleg Blinov, flight attendant Victoria Kirichenko (resident of Asgardia), flight engineer Ashley Kowalski, researchers William Brown, Saleh Omar Al Ameri and Ekaterina Koryakina.
Image above: IBMP RAS bench base - SIRIUS installation - Ground station, where the international experiment on isolation SIRIUS is carried out.
This period is deliberately shorter than the period of the flight of cosmonaut Valery Polyakov (14.56 months) at the Mir station and deliberately shorter than the period proposed by me purely empirically so far for the supposed "weightlessness criterion", calculated as 15 ± 2.5 months.
In addition, the modern SIRIUS project, developed by the IBMP RAS, does not contain any elements of artificial gravity and does not in any way solve the sacred issue of unlimited long-term human residence in space and, in particular, on the Moon, under conditions of microgravity on the surface of the latter.
The SIRIUS project will end on the fields of the IBMP RAS approximately in 2023. It would be logical to ensure the continuity of research, to design and build by the end of 2023 a fundamentally new bench base of the IBMP RAS, as a model of a really operating lunar manned station, on the principle of a homeostatic ark (with an artificial gravity system), equipped with a large-radius centrifuge.
Below is a link to S.V. Krichevsky "Artificial gravity for people in space: the evolution of ideas, technologies, projects", read at Moscow State University in 2021:
© Morozov S.L., 2021
Sergey Lvovich Morozov - the author of the Asgardian space calendar
Author: Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich.
List of publications on Orbiter.ch Space News (Archives):
Exodus of civilization into space - Standard space calendar of Asgardia as a reference calendar of civilization. Part 24
Exodus of civilization into space - Homestatic ark as the main tool in space exploration strategy. Part 22
Exodus of civilization into space - Ideology of space expansion. Part 21
Exodus of civilization into space - On the issue of standardization of the uniform space time of the Asgardian calendar in the AIS and the UN. Part 20
Exodus of civilization into space - The US decided to overtake China? "Plus the renewable electrification of the whole country?". Part 19.1
Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - UN Ideology in the XXI Century? Part 18.1.2
Exodus of civilization into space - Homeostatic Ark & Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars. Part 18.5
Exodus of civilization into space - American Jobs Plan. Part 18.4
Exodus of civilization into space - The space age of civilization began its new Third stage (civil). Part 18.3
Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - Ideology of the UN in the XXI Century. Part 18.2
Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - UN Ideology in the XXI Century. Part 18.1
Space Toilet and Problems of Intestinal Stick Infection. Part 17.7
Three Historical Stages of Cosmonautics Development. Part 17.6
Brief Background to Selenopolitics (Industrial Colonization of the Moon). Part 17.5
Exodus of civilization into space - Creation of the first ever mobile homeostatic ark (HA) in the USA. Part 16
Exodus of civilization into space - Apocalypse; View from the UK. Part 15
Exodus of civilization into space - Comparison of plans of NASA and Roscosmos. Part 14
The ideology of space expansion - The question of pregnancy and childbirth in zero gravity. Part 17.4
Colonization of the Moon - The source of the power, wealth and power of civilization in the Universe. Part 17.3
Space manned industrialization of the XXI century - the golden age of civilization. Part 17.2
Exodus of civilization into space - Humanity's strategy to create stationary and mobile Homeostatic arks. Part 17.1
Exodus of civilization into space - Tsiolkovsky Galactic State. Part 9
Exodus of civilization into space - Symbol of the End of the XXI century. Part 8
Exodus of civilization into space - Stopping the process of increasing value added. Part 7
Exodus of civilization into space - The sixth socio-economic formation of civilization. Part 6
Exodus of civilization into space - Space man. Part 5
Exodus of civilization into space - Biological End of the World. Part 4
Exodus of civilization into space - Geochronological Ice Ages, periods, eras. Part 3
Exodus of civilization into space - Astrophysical End of the World. Part 2
The ideology of space expansion - Space calendar. Part 1
About Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich: https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5fbb90753e3ad265054f930a/ob-avtore-kanala-5fbd2bf80b4af80149fb12c2
Original article in Russian on Zen.Yandex:
Asgardia website: https://asgardia.space/
Author: Ph.D. & Asgardia Member of Parliament (AMP) Morozov Sergey Lvovich / Zen.Yandex. Editor / Translation: Orbiter.ch Aerospace, by Roland Berga, Asgardia Member of Parliament (AMP), Founder & Owner of Orbiter.ch Aerospace.
Best regards, Orbiter.ch (Roland Berga).