NASA and ROSCOSMOS logos.
May 1, 2021
Here the fourteen article of a series of articles by Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich, expert in chronology and calendar systems, as well as space biology and medicine, Parliamentarian of Asgardia (AMP) the first space Nation.
Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich
Exodus of civilization into space - Creation of a space industry on the Moon - Comparison of plans of NASA and Roscosmos. Part 14
The industrialization of space is the way to save the earthly civilization in the Universe.
I. NASA has chosen the Moon as the site for the construction of the first ever "space plant" for the production of long structures
The mission is being developed by employees of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defense (DARPA).
Image above: NASA has chosen the Moon as the site for the construction of the first "space plant" in history. Image Credit: pixabay.com.
Today the question of the exploration of the Moon among the leading countries of the world has become one of the most important. Sending and landing on the moon of a person - can be made by Russia, China, the United States and the European Space Agency.
NASA's plant on the moon should appear as a result of a three-phase program. The duration of each phase will be 18 months [total: 54 months or 4.5 years]. During this time, equipment for the construction of "space factories" will be sent to the Earth satellite.
After that, raw materials and materials necessary for the production of complex and dimensional structures will begin to flow to the moon. Since the Moon does not have an atmosphere, it will be much easier to launch ready-made elements from its surface into orbit.
The program was officially named New Orbital and Lunar Manufacturing, Materials and Mass Efficient Design (NOM4D). Its essence lies in the assembly of modules, produced not on Earth, but directly in space.
It is assumed that the necessary materials will be sent from the ground, and then used on site for the construction of large-sized objects. We can talk, for example, about antennas and solar panels. Moreover, they will be much lighter and more maneuverable than those that were assembled on Earth.
The first phase of the program involves achieving efficiency for a 1 megawatt solar array.
The second phase will focus on risk mitigation and technical development of a 100 meter wide RF reflector.
During the third stage, it is planned to build a structure that reflects infrared radiation for a long-wave telescope.
According to the program, it will help solve the problem of launching large objects into orbit, which cannot yet be realized due to the small payload of existing launch vehicles.
In this American program for the exploration of the moon, nothing is said about the participation of people in this grandiose space construction. Will artificial gravity systems be used for long-term human habitation in outer space and on the Moon? Or will it be short-term rotational visits of builders to the Moon for a period not exceeding 180 days, as is the case on the ISS today in the harmful conditions of microgravity?
II. Russia returns to the moon
The centerpiece of Roscosmos's lunar exploration project is a transport system designed to carry out manned flights to the lunar orbit. [Used materials from the publication: “Russia is returning to the moon. This time precisely and with a concrete plan ”].
The Angara-A5 launch vehicle will play a key role in the manned launch scheme; the assembly of these missiles has been moved to the city of Omsk in Western Siberia. And in the Far East, a new launch pad is being created at the Russian civilian cosmodrome "Vostochny" in the Amur Region.
The Angara A5 launch vehicle will, separately, launch both the lunar take-off and landing complex and the Eagle spacecraft itself to the Moon. The first honorary right to fly to a natural satellite of the Earth will receive the take-off and landing complex.
Having reached the moon in a short time, the lunar take-off and landing complex will await the arrival of the "Eagle" from Earth. The height of the waiting orbit above the Moon will be 100 km.
After half a year, the second Angara-A5 launch vehicle with the Oryol spacecraft will be launched from the Earth, with a crew on board. After docking and transfer of the required number of astronauts on board the take-off and landing complex, a phased descent and soft landing on the lunar surface will take place.
The landing site will be selected by the scientists in advance, and the take-off and landing complex itself will land in automatic mode. After a certain time of work on the lunar surface, the take-off module starts together with the crew and docks with the Oryol spacecraft in the lunar orbit. The cosmonauts will board the Eagle.
Russian Eagle spaceship. Image Credit: Roscosmos
The takeoff module will undock and, over time, will fall to the surface of the Moon. The "Eagle" will start to gain speed to return to Earth. Upon arrival at Earth, the lander will enter the Earth's atmosphere twice. The first time it will go tangentially. Here it will partially decelerate, extinguish its speed and again go out of the atmosphere, and then, for the second time, it will enter the Earth's atmosphere and enter the near-earth orbit, from which, having accurately calculated the landing trajectory, will specifically land on the Earth's surface on the territory of Russia.
RSC Energia is actively developing a special cargo module that will transport cargo between the Moon and the Earth. The ship will not fly alone, it will include a cargo module. In addition, this module will be able, separately from the ship, to land on the moon and take off from its surface.
That is, in fact, the cargo module is the third link in the flight to the moon. And thus, the load on the rocket itself is reduced. In fact, this is the best solution. Here, the scientists of Roskosmos are clearly different from the Americans, who are going to fly to the moon using a super-heavy rocket.
Several types of spacesuits are being actively developed: this is the rescue spacesuit (Sokol-M), which will be used in the Orel spacecraft, and the spacesuit for work in open space (the new generation of Orlan spacesuits).
In addition to all this, Russia returns to the moon not only with people, but also with lunar rovers. The newest lunar rover weighing 1.3 tons is being developed, which will go to the moon in 2028. It will be delivered there by an extreme expedition at the Luna-29 station.
The first in October 2021 to launch to the Moon from the Baikonur cosmodrome is the Russian automatic probe Luna-25, which is included in the Russian lunar program and is its integral starting part.
The probe will be launched into orbit by the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle. The purpose of the flight will be to test the technology of landing on the moon. In addition, the probe is exploring the lunar surface in the region of the Moon's South Pole.
LV "Angara-A5" [Yandex pictures]
However, a full-fledged industrialization of the Moon is impossible without a super-heavy rocket. Therefore, after 2030, the Yenisei super-heavy rocket project will be launched, which will be needed to create a Russian orbital lunar station, as well as a base on the lunar surface.
The characteristics of the Oryol spacecraft are already known. This ship will be in two versions: near-earth and circumlunar. The launch mass of the circumlunar "Eagle" will be 20 tons. The ship will be able to return, in addition to the crew itself, 100 kg of payload to Earth. The creation of artificial gravity in the ship is not provided.
The flight is planned to be short-term, its duration will not exceed 180 days [6 months], as on the ISS today. This period is optimal for work in space in the harmful conditions of microgravity [without systems with artificial gravity]. The spacesuits that will be used for the flights will be ultralight. The manned flight itself is scheduled for 2029-2030.
The first stage of the Russian lunar program [Yandex pictures]
But in the end, the first colonies of "space" earthlings should appear on the Moon and in space, living in the Universe permanently (indefinitely) with an obligatory system of artificial gravity inside the colonies of the Homeostatic Arks [GC].
These "space" earthlings will physically reside either on stationary GC [s-GC] on the Moon, Mars, the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, etc., or on fleets of specially adapted spacecraft - mobile Homeostatic Ark [m-GC] located in open space and providing transport of goods and people between stationary objects in open space.
III. Salvation of earthly civilization in the Universe
"Space" man on the Moon and other stationary objects of the Universe, as well as in open space at long-term stations with artificial gravity.
The beginning of the second new stage of manned space exploration under artificial gravity conditions on the Homeostatic Arks.
The author of the term "space" man  is cosmonaut-researcher SV Krichevsky. (Publication: S. Krichevsky. "Space" man: ideas, technologies, projects, experience, prospects // Aerospace. - 2020. - No. 1. - P. 26-35. DOI: 10.30981 / 2587-7992 -2020-102-1-26-35).
The term "Homeostatic Ark"  was first introduced by Sergey Lvovich Morozov in articles and in the monograph:
Homeostatic ark as the main tool in space exploration strategy. [Journal "Aerospace Sphere" (VKS) №3 (96), 2018, pp. 28-37]
The ideology of space expansion. [Journal "Aerospace Sphere" (VKS) №1 (98), 2019, p. 50-61]
Standard 13-month I. Medler - D.I. Mendeleev - S.L. Morozov reference calendar and its application for the industrialization of space society. [Monograph - M .: LLC "VASH FORMAT", 2019. - 260 p. (Rus). ISBN 978-5-907092-99-0]
Starting with the manned exploration of the Moon, most likely, a "space" man on the GC will gradually begin to form in space, as a new "space" species of man, permanently residing in space on the GC of two types:
- On a stationary GC on the planet or on a satellite [s-GC],
- On a mobile GC [m-GC] in open space.
A variant of a stationary Homeostatic Ark on the Moon was first proposed to be built in 2019 in his publication "Long-term lunar base with artificial gravity and minimum structure mass" by A.O. (Alexander O. Mayboroda. A Long-term lunar base with artificial gravity and minimum weight design. Aerospace Sphere Journal (ASJ), 2019, vol. 100, 3, pp. 36-43. [Rus]).
It is important to emphasize that human civilization will never become a polyplanetary species without mastering the systems of the Homeostatic Arks [GK] - in their two basic types: stationary [s-GK] and mobile [m-GK].
Without the creation of these two basic systems of the GC, the salvation of the terrestrial civilization in the Universe is impossible.
The ideology of space expansion - The question of pregnancy and childbirth in zero gravity. Part 17.4
Colonization of the Moon - The source of the power, wealth and power of civilization in the Universe. Part 17.3
Space manned industrialization of the XXI century - the golden age of civilization. Part 17.2
Exodus of civilization into space - Humanity's strategy to create stationary and mobile Homeostatic arks. Part 17.1
Exodus of civilization into space - Tsiolkovsky Galactic State. Part 9
Exodus of civilization into space - Symbol of the End of the XXI century. Part 8
Exodus of civilization into space - Stopping the process of increasing value added. Part 7
Exodus of civilization into space - The sixth socio-economic formation of civilization. Part 6
Exodus of civilization into space - Space man. Part 5
Exodus of civilization into space - Biological End of the World. Part 4
Exodus of civilization into space - Geochronological Ice Ages, periods, eras. Part 3
Exodus of civilization into space - Astrophysical End of the World. Part 2
The ideology of space expansion - Space calendar. Part 1
About Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich: https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5fbb90753e3ad265054f930a/ob-avtore-kanala-5fbd2bf80b4af80149fb12c2
Original article in Russian on Zen.Yandex:
Asgardia website: https://asgardia.space/
Author: Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich / Zen.Yandex. Editor / Translation: Roland Berga.
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