mardi 20 octobre 2020

NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Successfully Touches Asteroid

 






NASA - OSIRIS-REx Mission patch.


Oct. 20, 2020

NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft unfurled its robotic arm Tuesday, and in a first for the agency, briefly touched an asteroid to collect dust and pebbles from the surface for delivery to Earth in 2023.


Image above: NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission readies itself to touch the surface of asteroid Bennu. Image Credits: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona.

This well-preserved, ancient asteroid, known as Bennu, is currently more than 200 million miles (321 million kilometers) from Earth. Bennu offers scientists a window into the early solar system as it was first taking shape billions of years ago and flinging ingredients that could have helped seed life on Earth. If Tuesday’s sample collection event, known as “Touch-And-Go” (TAG), provided enough of a sample, mission teams will command the spacecraft to begin stowing the precious primordial cargo to begin its journey back to Earth in March 2021. Otherwise, they will prepare for another attempt in January.

“This amazing first for NASA demonstrates how an incredible team from across the country came together and persevered through incredible challenges to expand the boundaries of knowledge,” said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine. “Our industry, academic, and international partners have made it possible to hold a piece of the most ancient solar system in our hands.”

At 1:50 p.m. EDT, OSIRIS-REx fired its thrusters to nudge itself out of orbit around Bennu. It extended the shoulder, then elbow, then wrist of its 11-foot (3.35-meter) sampling arm, known as the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM), and transited across Bennu while descending about a half-mile (805 meters) toward the surface. After a four-hour descent, at an altitude of approximately 410 feet (125 meters), the spacecraft executed the “Checkpoint” burn, the first of two maneuvers to allow it to precisely target the sample collection site, known as “Nightingale.”

Ten minutes later, the spacecraft fired its thrusters for the second “Matchpoint” burn to slow its descent and match the asteroid’s rotation at the time of contact. It then continued a treacherous, 11-minute coast past a boulder the size of a two-story building, nicknamed “Mount Doom,” to touch down in a clear spot in a crater on Bennu’s northern hemisphere. The size of a small parking lot, the site Nightingale site is one of the few relatively clear spots on this unexpectedly boulder-covered space rock.

“This was an incredible feat – and today we’ve advanced both science and engineering and our prospects for future missions to study these mysterious ancient storytellers of the solar system,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate at the agency’s headquarters in Washington. “A piece of primordial rock that has witnessed our solar system’s entire history may now be ready to come home for generations of scientific discovery, and we can’t wait to see what comes next.”

“After over a decade of planning, the team is overjoyed at the success of today’s sampling attempt,” said Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona in Tucson. “Even though we have some work ahead of us to determine the outcome of the event – the successful contact, the TAGSAM gas firing, and back-away from Bennu are major accomplishments for the team. I look forward to analyzing the data to determine the mass of sample collected.”

All spacecraft telemetry data indicates the TAG event executed as expected. However, it will take about a week for the OSIRIS-REx team to confirm how much sample the spacecraft collected.

Real-time data indicates the TAGSAM successfully contacted the surface and fired a burst of nitrogen gas. The gas should have stirred up dust and pebbles on Bennu’s surface, some of which should have been captured in the TAGSAM sample collection head. OSIRIS-REx engineers also confirmed that shortly after the spacecraft made contact with the surface, it fired its thrusters and safely backed away from Bennu.

“Today’s TAG maneuver was historic,” said Lori Glaze, Planetary Science Division director at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “The fact that we safely and successfully touched the surface of Bennu, in addition to all the other milestones this mission has already achieved, is a testament to the living spirit of exploration that continues to uncover the secrets of the solar system."


Animation above: Captured on Aug. 11, 2020 during the second rehearsal of the OSIRIS-REx mission’s sample collection event, this series of images shows the SamCam imager’s field of view as the NASA spacecraft approaches asteroid Bennu’s surface. The rehearsal brought the spacecraft through the first three maneuvers of the sampling sequence to a point approximately 131 feet (40 meters) above the surface, after which the spacecraft performed a back-away burn. Animation Credits: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona.

“It’s hard to put into words how exciting it was to receive confirmation that the spacecraft successfully touched the surface and fired one of the gas bottles,” said Michael Moreau, OSIRIS-REx deputy project manager at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “The team can’t wait to receive the imagery from the TAG event late tonight and see how the surface of Bennu responded to the TAG event.”

The spacecraft carried out TAG autonomously, with pre-programmed instructions from engineers on Earth. Now, the OSIRIS-REx team will begin to assess whether the spacecraft grabbed any material, and, if so, how much; the goal is at least 60 grams, which is roughly equivalent to a full-size candy bar.

OSIRIS-REx engineers and scientists will use several techniques to identify and measure the sample remotely. First, they’ll compare images of the Nightingale site before and after TAG to see how much surface material moved around in response to the burst of gas.

“Our first indication of whether we were successful in collecting a sample will come on October 21 when we downlink the back-away movie from the spacecraft,” Moreau said. “If TAG made a significant disturbance of the surface, we likely collected a lot of material.”

Next, the team will try to determine the amount of sample collected. One method involves taking pictures of the TAGSAM head with a camera known as SamCam, which is devoted to documenting the sample-collection process and determining whether dust and rocks made it into the collector head. One indirect indication will be the amount of dust found around the sample collector head. OSIRIS-REx engineers also will attempt to snap photos that could, given the right lighting conditions, show the inside of the head so engineers can look for evidence of sample inside of it.


Image above: These images show the OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM) sampling head extended from the spacecraft at the end of the TAGSAM arm. The spacecraft’s SamCam camera captured the images on Nov. 14, 2018 as part of a visual checkout of the TAGSAM system, which was developed by Lockheed Martin Space to acquire a sample of asteroid material in a low-gravity environment. The imaging was a rehearsal for a series of observations that will be taken at Bennu directly after sample collection. Images Credits: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona.

A couple of days after the SamCam images are analyzed, the spacecraft will attempt yet another method to measure the mass of the sample collected by determining the change in the spacecraft’s “moment of inertia,” a phrase that describes how mass is distributed and how it affects the rotation of the body around a central axis. This maneuver entails extending the TAGSAM arm out to the side of the spacecraft and slowly spinning the spacecraft about an axis perpendicular to the arm. This technique is analogous to a person spinning with one arm extended while holding a string with a ball attached to the end. The person can sense the mass of the ball by the tension in the string. Having performed this maneuver before TAG, and now after, engineers can measure the change in the mass of the collection head as a result of the sample inside.

“We will use the combination of data from TAG and the post-TAG images and mass measurement to assess our confidence that we have collected at least 60 grams of sample,” said Rich Burns, OSIRIS-REx project manager at Goddard. “If our confidence is high, we'll make the decision to stow the sample on October 30.”

To store the sample, engineers will command the robotic arm to place the sample collector head into the Sample Return Capsule (SRC), located in the body of the spacecraft. The sample arm will then retract to the side of the spacecraft for the final time, the SRC will close, and the spacecraft will prepare for its departure from Bennu in March 2021 — this is the next time Bennu will be properly aligned with Earth for the most fuel-efficient return flight.

OSIRIS-REx Touch and Go (TAG) and Sample Stow Sequence

Video above: This (silent) animation shows the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft deploying its Touch-and-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM) to collect a sample of regolith (loose rocks and dirt) from the surface of the asteroid Bennu. The sampler head, with the regolith safely inside, is then sealed up in the spacecraft's Sample Return Capsule, which will be returned to Earth in late 2023. Scientists will study the sample for clues about the early solar system and the origins of life. Video Credits: NASA/Goddard.

If, however, it turns out that the spacecraft did not collect enough sample at Nightingale, it will attempt another TAG maneuver on Jan. 12, 2021. If that occurs, it will touch down at the backup site called “Osprey,” which is another relatively boulder-free area inside a crater near Bennu’s equator.

OSIRIS-REx launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida Sept. 8, 2016. It arrived at Bennu Dec. 3, 2018, and began orbiting the asteroid for the first time on Dec. 31, 2018. The spacecraft is scheduled to return to Earth Sept. 24, 2023, when it will parachute the SRC into Utah's west desert where scientists will be waiting to collect it.

Goddard provides overall mission management, systems engineering and the safety and mission assurance for OSIRIS-REx. Dante Lauretta of the University of Arizona, Tucson, is the principal investigator, and the University of Arizona also leads the science team and the mission’s science observation planning and data processing. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built the spacecraft and is providing flight operations. Goddard and KinetX Aerospace are responsible for navigating the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers Program, which is managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

For more information on OSIRIS-REx:

https://www.nasa.gov/osiris-rex and https://www.asteroidmission.org

Images (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Video (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Sean Potter/Grey Hautaluoma/Joshua Handal/GSFC/Nancy Neal Jones/University of Arizona/Erin Morton.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

Veteran Space Residents Swap Command Today

 






ISS - Expedition 64 Mission patch.


October 20, 2020

Two veteran International Space Station crew members will swap command of the orbiting lab during the traditional Change of Command Ceremony this afternoon.

The six-member space station crew will gather together at 4:15 p.m. EDT when Expedition 63 Commander Chris Cassidy of NASA ceremonially hands control of the station to Expedition 64 cosmonaut Sergey Ryzhikov of Roscosmos. Ryzhikov will officially begin his command on Wednesday when Cassidy and Flight Engineers Anatoly Ivanishin and Ivan Vagner undock from the station at 7:32 p.m. inside the Soyuz MS-16 crew ship. All the activities will be broadcast live on NASA TV.


Image above: NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy (left) will hand over command of the station to Roscosmos cosmonaut Sergey Ryzhikov (right) today. Image Credit: NASA.

Meanwhile, science and maintenance activities are moving right along inside the space station. Cassidy and NASA Flight Engineer Kate Rubins both had time set aside today collecting blood, saliva and urine for stowage and later analysis. Rubins then checked out research hardware and plumbing gear before familiarizing herself with station systems.

Ryzhikov and Vagner spent a couple of hours swabbing surfaces in the Russian segment of the station collecting microbial samples and placing them in petri dishes for incubation and analysis. Vagner also joined Ivanishin to test the Lower Body Negative Pressure suit for its ability counteract some adverse effects of long-duration spaceflight and prepare the duo for the return to Earth’s gravity.

International Space Station (ISS). Animation Credit: NASA

New space flyer Sergey Kud-Sverchkov synchronized cameras with clocks on station laptop computers and worked on Russian plumbing tasks. The cosmonaut also is getting used to living and working in space for the first time.

Related links:

Expedition 63: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition63/index.html

Expedition 64: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition64/index.html

Lower Body Negative Pressure suit: https://blogs.nasa.gov/ISS_Science_Blog/2015/06/02/rubber-vacuum-pants-that-suck/

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/overview.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

lundi 19 octobre 2020

Crews Change Command on Tuesday; Leak Temporarily Sealed

 






ISS - Expedition 64 Mission patch.


October 19, 2020

Two veteran International Space Station residents will have a Change of Command ceremony on Tuesday before the Expedition 63 crew returns to Earth the following day. Meanwhile, the Russian portion of the crew has temporarily sealed a leak on the orbiting lab.

Commander Chris Cassidy of NASA will hand over control of the space station to cosmonaut Sergey Ryzhikov on Tuesday. The duo will be joined by the rest of their crewmates for the traditional event live on NASA TV starting at 4:15 p.m. EDT.


Image above: The sun’s first rays burst over the Earth’s horizon during an orbital sunrise as the International Space Station orbited above the Indian Ocean southwest of Australia. Image Credit: NASA.

Cassidy will spend one more night in space with Flight Engineers Anatoly Ivanishin and Ivan Vagner before departing the station on Wednesday inside the Soyuz MS-16 crew ship. They will undock from the Poisk module at 7:32 p.m., re-enter the Earth’s atmosphere just over three hours later and parachute to a landing in Kazakhstan at 10:55 p.m. (Oct. 22, 7:55 a.m. Baikonur time). All the activities will be broadcast live on NASA TV.

Expedition 64 officially begins when Cassidy undocks with his two Russian crewmates. New station Commander Ryzhikov will stay in space until April with Flight Engineers Kate Rubins of NASA and Sergey Kud-Sverchkov of Roscosmos.

Soyuz undocking. Animation Credit: NASA

Russian crew members were able to temporarily seal the air leak teams have been investigating aboard the station. The leak, which has been investigated for several months, continues to pose no immediate danger to the crew at the current leak rate. Roscosmos engineers are working with the station crew to develop a forward plan to permanently seal the suspected leak location.

Related links:

Expedition 63: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition63/index.html

Expedition 64: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition64/index.html

NASA TV: https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/index.html

Poisk module: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/poisk-mini-research-module-2

Space Station Research and Technology: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/overview.html

International Space Station (ISS): https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html

Image (mentioned), Animation (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Mark Garcia.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

Mobile telephony coming soon to the Moon

 


NOKIA logo.


Oct. 19, 2020

The Finnish group Nokia will manufacture for NASA the first operational mobile telephone network on the Earth satellite. It should be deployed at the end of 2022.


Image above: The “ultra-compact and space-resistant” 4G network will be “the very first cellular network on the Moon”. (photo illustration).

Hello Moon? The Finnish group Nokia will manufacture for NASA what will be the first operational mobile telephone network on the Moon, as part of the permanent human base project of the US space agency, he announced Monday.

The “ultra-compact, energy-efficient and space-resistant” 4G network, which will be “the very first cellular network on the Moon”, must be deployed on the surface of the Moon by the end of 2022, via the lander on which works the American company Intuitive Machines, specifies Nokia in a press release. NASA has confirmed that it will be the first cellular network on the Moon, where humans last walked back to 1972.

Ensuring the connection of astronaut activities

The network, which must be self-configuring during its deployment on the Moon, must in particular make it possible to ensure the wireless connection of "any activity that the astronauts will have to carry out, allowing the exchange of communication by voice and video, telemetry and the exchange of biometric data, or the deployment and operation of robots, ”continues the Finnish group.

The contract, worth $ 14.1 million, was won by Nokia's US subsidiary in a series of cutting-edge contracts unveiled by NASA on Friday. "The system will allow communications to the Moon's surface over greater distances, at higher speed, and more reliably than current standards," the space agency said in its statement.

Two American astronauts, including a woman, are scheduled to walk on the Moon in 2024 during the Artemis 3 mission, and NASA wants to establish a permanent base there, a prelude to a possible mission to Mars.

Related links:

Nokia USA: https://www.nokia.com/about-us/worldwide/north-america/

Intuitive Machines: https://www.intuitivemachines.com/

NASA: https://www.nasa.gov/

Image, Text, Credits: ATS/NOKIA/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Best regards, Orbiter.ch

Clumpy, Recycled Gas From Stars Surrounds Milky Way

 







NASA - HaloSat Mission patch.


Oct. 19, 2020

The Milky Way galaxy is in the recycling business. Our galaxy is surrounded by a clumpy halo of hot gases that is continually being supplied with material ejected by birthing or dying stars, according to a NASA-funded study in the journal Nature Astronomy.


Image above: The Milky Way Galaxy is seen in this illustration. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC/Caltech).

A halo is a large region filled with hot gas that surrounds a galaxy, also known as a “circumgalactic medium.” The heated gaseous halo around the Milky Way was the incubator for the Milky Way’s formation some 13 billion years ago and could help solve a longstanding puzzle about where the missing matter of the universe might reside.

The new findings come from observations made by a small spacecraft called HaloSat. It is in a class of minisatellites called CubeSats and is roughly the size of a toaster, measuring 4-by-8-by-12 inches (about 10-by-20-by-30 centimeters) and weighing about 26 pounds (12 kilograms). Built by the University of Iowa, HaloSat was launched from the International Space Station in May 2018 and is the first CubeSat funded by NASA’s Astrophysics Division.

While tiny compared to NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, HaloSat’s X-ray detectors view a much wider piece of the sky at once and therefore are optimized to doing the sort of wide-area survey needed to measure the galactic halo.


Image above: HaloSat is a small satellite that looks at the hot gas around the Milky Way. Image Credits: Blue Canyon Technologies, Inc.

Because of their small size, CubeSats allow NASA to conduct low-cost scientific investigations in space. Six CubeSats to date have been selected in this Astrophysics Division series.

In the new study, researchers conclude the circumgalactic medium has a disk-like geometry, based on the intensity of X-ray emissions coming from it.

“The X-ray emissions are stronger above the parts of the Milky Way where star formation is more vigorous,” says Philip Kaaret, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Iowa and corresponding author on the study. “That suggests the circumgalactic medium is related to star formation, and it is likely we are seeing gas that previously fell into the Milky Way, made stars, and now is being recycled into the circumgalactic medium.”

Every galaxy has a circumgalactic medium, and these regions are crucial to understanding not only how galaxies formed and evolved but also how the universe progressed from a kernel of helium and hydrogen to a cosmological expanse teeming with stars, planets, comets, and all other sorts of celestial constituents.

HaloSat searches for baryonic matter — that is, the same kind of particles that compose the visible world — believed to be missing since the universe’s birth nearly 14 billion years ago. The satellite has been observing the Milky Way’s circumgalactic medium for evidence that the missing baryonic matter may reside there. Baryonic matter is distinct from dark matter, which is invisible and does not interact through any force except gravity. Scientists can only account for about two-thirds of the baryonic matter that should be present in the universe.


Image above: HaloSat, a CubeSat mission to study the halo of hot gas surrounding the Milky Way, was released from the International Space Station in 2018. Image Credits: NanoRacks/NASA.

To do look for the missing matter, Kaaret and his team wanted to get a better handle on the circumgalactic medium’s configuration.

More specifically, the researchers wanted to find out how big the circumgalactic medium really is. If it’s a huge, extended halo that is many times the size of our galaxy, it could house enough material to solve the missing baryon question. But if the circumgalactic medium is mostly comprised of recycled material, it would be a relatively thin, puffy layer of gas and an unlikely host of the missing baryonic matter.

“What we’ve done is definitely show that there’s a high-density part of the circumgalactic medium that’s bright in X-rays,” Kaaret says. “But there still could be a really big, extended halo that is just dim in X-rays. And it might be harder to see that dim, extended halo because there’s this bright emission disk in the way.

“So it turns out with HaloSat alone, we really can’t say whether or not there really is this extended halo” around the Milky Way, Kaarat says.  

Kaaret says he was surprised by the circumgalactic medium’s clumpiness, expecting its geometry to be more uniform. The denser areas are regions where stars are forming, and where material is being traded between the Milky Way and the circumgalactic medium.

“It seems as if the Milky Way and other galaxies are not closed systems,” Kaaret says. “They’re actually interacting, throwing material out to the circumgalactic medium and bringing back material as well.”

The next step is to combine the HaloSat data with data from other X-ray observatories to determine whether there’s an extended halo surrounding the Milky Way, and if it’s there, to calculate its density. That, in turn, could solve the missing baryonic matter puzzle.

“Those missing baryons better be somewhere,” Kaaret says. “They’re in halos around individual galaxies like our Milky Way or they’re located in filaments that stretch between galaxies.”

The study is titled, “A disc-dominated and clumpy circumgalactic medium of the Milky Way seen in X-ray emission.” Study co-authors include Jesse Bluem, graduate student in physics at Iowa; Hannah Gulick, graduate student in astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley who graduated from Iowa last May; Daniel LaRocca, who earned his doctorate at Iowa last July and is now a postdoctoral researcher at Pennsylvania State University; Rebecca Ringuette, a postdoctoral researcher with Kaaret who joined NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center this month; and Anna Zayczyk, a former postdoctoral researcher with Kaaret and a research scientist at both NASA Goddard and University of Maryland, Baltimore County.

HaloSat is a NASA CubeSat mission led by the University of Iowa in Iowa City. Additional partners include NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility on Wallops Island, Virginia, Blue Canyon Technologies in Boulder, Colorado, Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and with important contributions from partners in France. HaloSat was selected through NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative as part of the 23rd installment of the Educational Launch of Nanosatellites missions.

Related links:

HaloSat: https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/halosat/

Small Satellite Missions: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/smallsats

CubeSats: http://www.nasa.gov/cubesats/

Galaxies: https://www.nasa.gov/subject/6894/galaxies

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Tricia Talbert/Elizabeth Landau/Written by Richard Lewis, University of Iowa.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

Antarctic ozone hole is one of the largest and deepest in recent years

 






ESA - Sentinel-5P Mission logo.


Oct. 19, 2020

Measurements from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite show that this year’s ozone hole over the Antarctic is one of the largest and deepest in recent years. A detailed analyses from the German Aerospace Center indicates that the hole has now reached its maximum size.

The size of the ozone hole fluctuates on a regular basis. From August to October, the ozone hole increases in size – reaching a maximum between mid-September and mid-October. When temperatures high up in the stratosphere start to rise in the southern hemisphere, the ozone depletion slows, the polar vortex weakens and finally breaks down, and by the end of December ozone levels return to normal.

Ozone hole 2020

This year, measurements from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite, show that this year’s ozone hole reached its maximum size of around 25 million sq km on 2 October, comparable to the sizes of 2018 and 2015 (where the area was around 22.9 and 25.6 sq in the same period). Last year, the ozone hole not only closed earlier than usual, but was also the smallest hole recorded in the last 30 years.

The variability of the size of the ozone hole is largely determined by the strength of a strong wind band that flows around the Antarctic area. This strong wind band is a direct consequence of Earth's rotation and the strong temperature differences between polar and moderate latitudes.

Ozone hole 2020

If the band of wind is strong, it acts like a barrier: air masses between polar and temperate latitudes can no longer be exchanged. The air masses then remain isolated over the polar latitudes and cool down during the winter.

Diego Loyola, from the German Aerospace Center, comments, “Our observations show that the 2020 ozone hole has grown rapidly since mid-August, and covers most of the Antarctic continent – with its size well above average. What is also interesting to see is that the 2020 ozone hole is also one of the deepest and shows record-low ozone values. The total ozone column measurements from the Tropomi instrument on Sentinel-5P reached close to 100 Dobson Units on 2 October.”

Depth of the 2020 ozone hole

ESA’s mission manager for Copernicus Sentinel-5P, Claus Zehner, adds, “The Sentinel-5P total ozone columns provide an accurate means to monitor ozone hole occurrences from space. Ozone hole phenomena cannot be used in straightforward manner for monitoring global ozone changes as they are determined by the strength of regional strong wind fields that flow around polar areas.”

In the 1970s and 1980s, the widespread use of damaging chlorofluorocarbons in products such as refrigerators and aerosol tins damaged ozone high up in our atmosphere – which led to a hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica.

In response to this, the Montreal Protocol was created in 1987 to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production and consumption of these harmful substances, which is leading to a recovery of the ozone layer.

Sentinel-5P

Claus concludes, “Based on the Montreal Protocol and the decrease of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances, scientists currently predict that the global ozone layer will reach its normal state again by around 2050.”

ESA has been involved in monitoring ozone for many years. Launched in October 2017, Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite is the first Copernicus satellite dedicated to monitoring our atmosphere. With its state-of-the-art instrument, Tropomi, it is able to detect atmospheric gases to image air pollutants more accurately and at a higher spatial resolution than ever before from space.

Related links:

Sentinel-5P: https://www.esa.int/Applications/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus/Sentinel-5P

Copernicus: https://www.esa.int/Applications/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus

Animation, Video, Text, Credits: : ESA/Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2020), processed by DLR/BIRA.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch

dimanche 18 octobre 2020

SpaceX Starlink 13 launch Success

 







SpaceX - Falcon 9 / Starlink Mission patch.


Oct. 18, 2020

SpaceX Starlink 13 launch

A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launched 60 Starlink satellites (Starlink-13) from Launch Complex 39A (LC-39A) at Kennedy Space Center in Florida, on 18 October 2020, at 12:25 UTC (8:25 EDT).

SpaceX Starlink 13 launch & Falcon 9 first stage landing, 18 October 2020

Following stage separation, Falcon 9’s first stage (B1051) landed on the “Of Course I Still Love You” droneship, stationed in the Atlantic Ocean. Falcon 9’s first stage previously supported Crew Dragon Demo-1, RADARSAT and three Starlink missions this year.

Falcon 9’s first stage landed on the “Of Course I Still Love You” droneship

A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches the 14th batch of approximately 60 satellites for SpaceX’s Starlink broadband network, a mission designated Starlink V1.0-L13. Delayed from September and Oct. 10.

Related articles:

SpaceX Starlink 12 launch Success
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/10/spacex-starlink-12-launch-success.html

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https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/09/spacex-starlink-11-launch.html

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https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/08/spacex-starlink-10-launch.html

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https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/08/spacex-starlink-9-launched-in-to-orbit.html

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https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/06/spacex-starlink-7-launch-success.html

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https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/04/spacex-starlink-6-launched-into-orbit.html

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https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/03/spacex-starlink-5-launched.html

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https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/02/spacex-starlink-launched.html

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https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/01/spacex-starlink-3-launch-success.html

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https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2020/01/spacex-spacex-starlink-2-launch-success.html

Panic wind among astronomers
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/05/panic-wind-among-astronomers.html

SpaceX Starlink launched
https://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2019/11/spacex-starlink-launched.html

Related links:

SpaceX: https://www.spacex.com/

Starlink: https://www.starlink.com/

Images, Video, Text, Credits: Credits: SpaceX/SciNews/Orbiter.ch Aerospace/Roland Berga.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch