vendredi 3 septembre 2021

Cosmonauts Conclude First Spacewalk To Ready New Module


ROSCOSMOS - Russian Cosmonauts patch.

September 3, 2021

Roscosmos cosmonauts Oleg Novitsky and Pyotr Dubrov. Image Credits: NASA/Roscosmos

Russian cosmonauts Oleg Novitskiy and Pyotr Dubrov of Roscosmos concluded their spacewalk at 6:35 p.m. EDT after 7 hours and 54 minutes. It is the first of up to 11 spacewalks to prepare the new Nauka multipurpose laboratory module for operations in space.

Novitskiy and Dubrov completed the major objective for today to connect power cables between the recently arrived Nauka module and the Zarya module to enable the routing of electricity from the U.S. segment of the station to Nauka. Checkouts of the two electrical power cable systems from Zarya to Nauka were successful. They also partially installed one new handrail.

Image above: Cosmonauts Oleg Novitskiy and Pyotr Dubrov during a spacewalk to connect power and ethernet cables to the Nauka laboratory module. Image Credit: NASA TV.

Tasks deferred to a future spacewalk are to install two additional handrails to enable spacewalkers to maneuver to and about Nauka more easily, make the final connection for the ethernet cable the duo partially routed today, deploy a science investigation, jettison the ethernet cable reel following the completion of the connection, and take imagery of the Russian segment of the station.

The duo will continue work during a second spacewalk on Thursday, Sept. 9; coverage on NASA Television, the NASA app, and agency’s website will begin at 10:30 a.m. with the spacewalk expected to begin about 11 a.m. and last about five hours.

ISS Expedition 65 performs Russian spacewalk #49. Image Credit: NASA TV

This was the 10th spacewalk this year and the 242nd overall in support of space station assembly, maintenance and upgrades. Spacewalkers have now spent a total of 63 days, 15 hours, and 35 minutes working outside the station.

It is the second spacewalk for both cosmonauts, both of whom have now spent a total of 15 hours and 13 minutes spacewalking.

Russian Spacewalk 49 with this awesome view

In November 2020, the International Space Station surpassed its 20-year milestone of continuous human presence, providing opportunities for unique research and technological demonstrations that help prepare for long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars and also improve life on Earth. In that time, 244 people from 19 countries have visited the orbiting laboratory that has hosted nearly 3,000 research investigations from researchers in 108 countries and areas.

Related article:

Cosmonauts & Astronauts will go into outer space eight times from January to May 2022

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NASA Television:

International Space Station (ISS):

Images (mentioned), Video, Text, Credits: NASA/Norah Moran/ROSCOSMOS/NASA TV.

Best regards,

Firefly Aerospace - Firefly Alpha launch (failled)


Firefly Aerospace logo.

Sep 3, 2021

Firefly Alpha rocket explosion

Firefly Aerospace launched its first Firefly Alpha launch vehicle from Vandenberg Space Force Base, California, on 3 September 2021, at 01:59 UTC (2 September, at 18:59 PDT).

Firefly Alpha launch

About two minutes into the flight, the “Alpha experienced an anomaly during first stage ascent that resulted in the loss of the vehicle”.

Firefly Alpha rocket description

About Firefly Aerospace

Firefly Aerospace Inc. (“Firefly”), headquartered in Austin, TX, is committed to providing economical and convenient access to space for small payloads through the design, manufacture and operation of reliable launch vehicles. The Firefly team addresses the market's need for flexible access to space with a “simplest/soonest” approach to technology selection. Firefly launch vehicles embody the insights of a diverse design team and leverage commercial off–the–shelf (COTS) components, manufactured by suppliers across the United States, to reduce risk, maximize reliability and minimize development time.

Led by CEO Tom Markusic and a team of space industry veterans, Firefly is on track to deliver a US solution for the 1,000 to 10,000 kg payload class to LEO by 2021 for a starting price of $15M. Firefly is committed to doing its part to restore U.S. leadership in the small to medium launch market, and is establishing international offices and strategic partnerships to effectively serve the global market.

Firefly Aerospace:

Images, Video, Text, Credits: Firefly Aerospace/SciNews/ Aerospace/Roland Berga.


Planetary Radar Observes 1,000th Near-Earth Asteroid Since 1968


Asteroid Watch logo.

Sep 03, 2021

Seven days after this historic milestone, a massive antenna at NASA’s Deep Space Network Goldstone complex imaged another, far larger object.

Video above: This animation shows asteroid 2016 AJ193 rotate as it was observed by Goldstone’s 70-meter (230 foot) antenna on Aug. 22, 2021. Three-quarters of a mile (1.3-kilometers) wide, the object was the 1,001st near-Earth asteroid to be measured by planetary radar since 1968. Video Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

On Aug. 14, 2021, a small near-Earth asteroid (NEA) designated 2021 PJ1 passed our planet at a distance of over 1 million miles (about 1.7 million kilometers). Between 65 and 100 feet (20 and 30 meters) wide, the recently discovered asteroid wasn’t a threat to Earth. But this asteroid’s approach was historic, marking the 1,000th NEA to be observed by planetary radar in just over 50 years.

And only seven days later, planetary radar observed the 1,001st such object, but this one was much larger.

Since the first radar observation of the asteroid 1566 Icarus in 1968, this powerful technique has been used to observe passing NEAs and comets (collectively known as near-Earth objects, or NEOs). These radar detections improve our knowledge of NEO orbits, providing the data that can extend calculations of future motion by decades to centuries and help definitively predict if an asteroid is going to hit Earth, or if it’s just going to pass close by. For example, recent radar measurements of the potentially hazardous asteroid Apophis helped eliminate any possibility of it impacting Earth for the next 100 years.

Image above: This figure represents the radar echo from asteroid 2021 PJ1 on Aug. 14, 2021. The horizontal axis represents the difference in predicted Doppler frequency and the new radar measurement. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

In addition, they can provide scientists with detailed information on physical properties that could be matched only by sending a spacecraft and observing these objects up close. Depending on an asteroid’s size and distance, radar can be used to image its surface in intricate detail while also determining its size, shape, spin rate, and whether or not it is accompanied by one or more small moons.

In the case of 2021 PJ1, the asteroid was too small and the observing time too short to acquire images. But as the 1,000th NEA detected by planetary radar, the milestone highlights the efforts to study the NEAs that have passed close to Earth.

“2021 PJ1 is a small asteroid, so when it passed us at a distance of over a million miles, we couldn’t obtain detailed radar imagery,” said Lance Benner, who leads NASA’s asteroid radar research program at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. “Yet even at that distance, planetary radar is powerful enough to detect it and measure its velocity to a very high precision, which improved our knowledge of its future motion substantially.”

Benner and his team led this effort using the 70-meter (230-foot) Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) antenna at the Deep Space Network’s Goldstone Deep Space Complex near Barstow, California, to transmit radio waves to the asteroid and receive the radar reflections, or “echoes.”

Catching (Radio) Waves

Of all the asteroids observed by planetary radar, well over half were observed by the large 305-meter (1,000-foot) telescope at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico before it was damaged and decommissioned in 2020. The antenna collapsed soon after. Goldstone’s DSS-14 and 34-meter (112-foot) DSS-13 antennas have observed 374 near-Earth asteroids to date. Fourteen NEAs have also been observed in Australia using antennas at the Deep Space Network’s Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex to transmit radio waves to the asteroids and the CSIRO’s Australian Telescope Compact Array and Parkes Observatory in New South Wales to receive the radar reflections.

Explore NASA’s 70-Meter Deep Space Communications Dish (360° Video)

Video above: Explore NASA’s massive 70-meter (230-foot) DSS-14 antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in Barstow, California, in this 360-degree video. Along with communicating with spacecraft throughout the solar system, DSS-14 and other DSN antennas can also be used to conduct radio science. Video Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Nearly three-quarters of all NEA radar observations have been made since NASA’s NEO Observations Program, now a part of its Planetary Defense Program, increased funding for this work 10 years ago.

The most recent asteroid to be observed by radar made its approach by Earth only a week after 2021 PJ1. Between Aug. 20 and 24, Goldstone imaged 2016 AJ193 as it passed our planet at a distance of 2.1 million miles (about 3.4 million kilometers). Although this asteroid was farther away than 2021 PJ1, its radar echoes were stronger because 2016 AJ193 is about 40 times larger, with a diameter of about three-quarters of a mile (1.3 kilometers). The radar images revealed considerable detail on the object’s surface, including ridges, small hills, flat areas, concavities, and possible boulders.

“The 2016 AJ193 approach provided an important opportunity to study the object’s properties and improve our understanding of its future motion around the Sun,” said Shantanu Naidu, a scientist at JPL who led the Aug. 22 observations of 2016 AJ193. “It has a cometary orbit, which suggests that it may be an inactive comet. But we knew little about it before this pass, other than its size and how much sunlight its surface reflects, so we planned this observing campaign years ago.”

NASA’s NEOWISE mission had previously measured 2016 AJ193’s size, but the Goldstone observations revealed more detail: It turns out to be a highly complex and interesting object that rotates with a period of 3.5 hours.

Image above: This series of images captured on Aug. 22, 2021, shows asteroid 2016 AJ193 rotate as it was observed by Goldstone's 70-meter antenna. The 1.3-kilometers wide object was the 1,001st near-Earth asteroid to be measured by planetary radar since 1968. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Scientists will use these new observations of 2016 AJ193 – the 1,001st NEA observed by planetary radar – to better understand its size, shape, and composition. As with 2021 PJ1, measurements of its distance and speed during this approach also provided data that will reduce uncertainties in computing its orbit.

“In addition to the surveys that use ground- and space-based optical telescopes to detect and track nearly 27,000 NEOs throughout our solar system, planetary radar is an important tool for monitoring asteroids that come close to Earth,” said Kelly Fast, NEO Observations Program Manager of the Planetary Defense Coordination Office at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Reaching this milestone of now just over 1,000 radar detections of NEAs emphasizes the important contribution that has been made in characterizing this hazardous population, which is fundamental for our planetary defense efforts.”

For more information about NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office, visit:

For asteroid and comet news and updates, follow @AsteroidWatch on Twitter:

Related links:


70-meter (230-foot) Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14):

Deep Space Network (DSN):

Goldstone Deep Space Complex:

Arecibo Observatory:

Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex:


Australian Telescope Compact Array:

Parkes Observatory:

Images (mentioned), Videos (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Karen Fox/Josh Handal/JPL/Ian J. O'Neill.


Hubble Snaps Speedy Star Jets


NASA - Hubble Space Telescope patch.

Sep 3, 2021

This striking image features a relatively rare celestial phenomenon known as a Herbig-Haro object. This particular object, named HH111, was imaged by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). These spectacular objects develop under very specific circumstances. Newly formed stars are often very active, and in some cases they expel very narrow jets of rapidly moving ionized gas – gas that is so hot that its molecules and atoms have lost their electrons, making the gas highly charged. The streams of ionized gas then collide with the clouds of gas and dust surrounding newly formed stars at speeds of hundreds of miles per second. It is these energetic collisions that create Herbig-Haro objects such as HH111.

WFC3 takes images at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, which means that it observes objects at a wavelength range similar to the range that human eyes are sensitive to (optical, or visible) and a range of wavelengths that are slightly too short (ultraviolet) or too long (infrared) to be detected by human eyes. Herbig-Haro objects actually release a lot of light at optical wavelengths, but they are difficult to observe because their surrounding dust and gas absorb much of the visible light. Therefore, the WFC3’s ability to observe at infrared wavelengths – where observations are not as affected by gas and dust – is crucial to observing Herbo-Haro objects successfully.

Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

For more information about Hubble, visit:

Text Credits: ESA (European Space Agency)/NASA/Rob Garner/Image, Animation Credits: ESA/Hubble & NASA, B. Nisini.

Best regards,

Hurricane Ida Recovery Assessments Continue at NASA Michoud


NASA logo.

Sep 3, 2021

Recovery and damage assessments continue at NASA’s Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans following Hurricane Ida. The powerful category 4 hurricane made landfall in Louisiana Aug. 29 on the 16th anniversary of Hurricane Katrina.

The Michoud Safety and Security team completed an initial assessment of the 829-acre facility and its 81 buildings and structures on Aug. 31. Teams determined Michoud did not sustain any significant structural damage. Wind from the storm also caused damage to several buildings as well as to the roof deck panels and lightning protection systems. Many of the roofing systems at the facility did sustain significant damage and caused water intrusion into some buildings.

Image above: The roof of Building 103 at NASA’s Michoud Assembly Facility sustained damaged following Hurricane Ida on Aug. 29. The wind from the storm buckled sections of the roof, causing damage to the roof deck panels and to the lightning protection system. Image Credit: NASA.

Michoud is operating on limited generator power for essential areas. Due to the reduced power and limited lighting within the factory, limited assessments have been made inside the facility. As more power becomes available, teams will do more detailed assessments as well as evaluating electronical connections within the facility.

The facility remains closed except to essential personnel as emergency and security crews continue to evaluate and clear debris from the area.

“Teams are working diligently and methodically on recovery efforts at NASA’s Michoud Assembly Facility, and our NASA and contract teams are committed to ensuring the facility is ready for non-essential teams to return,” said Michoud Director Lonnie Dutreix. “We are very thankful that no injuries were reported to the NASA ride-out crew as they weathered the storm and kept Michoud secure.”

Image above: Hurricane Ida as a category 5 storm is photographed nearing the Gulf Coast of Louisiana from the International Space Station on Aug. 29. The Northrop Grumman Cygnus space freighter attached to the station’s Unite module is seen in the foreground. Image Credit: NASA.

Michoud is the primary manufacturing site for spaceflight hardware for NASA’s Artemis lunar missions, including major parts of the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and the Orion capsule structure. Teams are manufacturing hardware for missions beyond Artemis I inside the factory. Inspections of flight hardware and tooling inside the factory are ongoing and are not complete due to widespread power outages in the region.

Although no personal injuries have been reported by NASA and government contract employees, many Michoud team members have been displaced from their homes, remain without power, have experienced damage to personal property or loss of personal property, and have not been able to return to work. Some Michoud employees were already teleworking off-site due to COVID-19 restrictions.

Related article:

NASA Invites Media to Kennedy for Artemis Activities

For the latest statements, status reports, and imagery, visit:

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Space Launch System (SLS):

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Lee Mohon/Marshall Space Flight Center/Shannon Segovia/Written by Corinne Edmiston.


Exodus of civilization into space - On the issue of standardization of the uniform space time of the Asgardian calendar in the AIS and the UN. Part 20


Humanity Space Expansion logo.

Sep. 3, 2021


Here the twentieth (20) article of a series of articles by Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich, expert in chronology and calendar systems, as well as space biology and medicine, Parliamentarian of Asgardia (AMP) the first space Nation.

Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich

On the issue of standardization of the uniform space time of the Asgardian calendar in the AIS and the UN

Image above: Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev (January 27 [February 8] 1834, Tobolsk - January 20 [February 2] 1907, St. Petersburg).

On the issue of standardizing the uniform space time of the Asgardian calendar at the Asgardia Institute for Standardization (AIS) and the United Nations. Calendar position of the government of India. Calendar astronavigation and astrodynamics in the solar system at the center of distant space communications (MCC).


Mass manned space exploration is impossible without a calendar space reference standard.

Uniform accounting of time on Earth and in Space in the form of the space calendar of Asgardia is an indispensable condition for the formation of the sixth OEF (socio-economic formation) - "astronautical or information-space".

(Part 5 - The Cosmic Doctrine of Civilization. The Cosmic Calendar of Asgardia.)

(Part 6 - The sixth socio-economic formation of civilization)


The digital space calendar of Asgardia is the reference standard calendar. It has no error in relation to the mean tropical solar year.

For the first time in history, we have a solar calendar that is perfectly accurate to the 7th decimal place. It works automatically in all time zones and is synchronized with the atomic clock.

It can be presented for discussion at the UN, what can contribute to the official recognition of the state of Asgardia by the world community?

The famous D.I. Mendeleev was the forerunner of modern metrology and standardization. In 1899, Mendeleev, who since 1892 headed the Depot of Exemplary Weights and Measures (later, since June 8, 1893, the Main Chamber of Weights and Measures of the Russian Empire, a prototype of all modern institutions of standards and measurement standards, exemplary weights and measures), drew attention to the lack of a single world standard standard of annual (calendar) time. It is not yet in the world until now (2021).

In 1923, the "Preparatory Committee for a Simplified Calendar" was created at the League of Nations in Geneva. The states of Europe and America proposed about 200 calendar reform projects, which were reviewed and published by the Committee.

At the same time, in 1923 in Geneva at the League of Nations, the International Committee for the Reform of the Calendar was created, which was tasked with preparing a universal, unchanging calendar.

The International Association for the World Calendar, which has existed for several decades, is doing a lot of work on the creation of the world calendar and its popularization. Since April 1953, it has been included in the number of non-governmental organizations at the UN Economic and Social Council.

On July 28, 1954, the 18th session of the UN Economic and Social Council discussed the draft of the new calendar and recommended it for consideration at the UN General Assembly.

This issue was again discussed at the 21st session of the UN Economic and Social Council in April 1956, but its final decision was then postponed. The issue has not been resolved until today (2021) due to the special clerical position of the Vatican.

Calendar position of the government of India

All the numerous projects of the future calendar do not at all touch upon the arithmetic basis of the modern Gregorian calendar, that is, the rules for alternating simple and leap years (leap rule 97/400 days).

They concern only the reform of the internal division of the year into quarters and months, which, as it turned out, do not correspond to the rules of the Roman Catholic Church, which invented the Gregorian calendar in 1582 to fulfill its purely ecclesiastical needs, and not to solve the problems of civil society on Earth and not for solving the problems of manned astronautics of the XXI century, for which this calendar is simply physically unsuitable due to its low accuracy.

A particularly great need for calendar reform has always been felt in those countries in which there was no uniform reckoning of time. Such a country, in particular, was India.

Therefore, the Indian government did not limit itself to the development and introduction of a national calendar, but invariably initiates the early introduction of the world calendar. J. Nehru has repeatedly advocated the early implementation of the calendar reform.

Nehru pointed out that "it is urgent to adopt a new, uniform and unchanging calendar, more convenient than the Gregorian one."




A variant of the reform of the Julian calendar by astronomer Mädler

The first in history proposed a new version of the reform of the inaccurate 12-month analog Julian calendar to a more accurate calendar in 1864 by the German astronomer J. G. Medler. He was the first to suggest using the leap formula 31/128 days instead of 100/400 days (= 1/4 days) in the analog Julian calendar.

But he did not have a rule of agreement (superposition rule) of long (3200 years) and short (128 years) calendar cycles with each other. Unbeknownst to Mädler, every 3200 year since 1600 (e.g. 4800) is a common year. All of Medler's calculations were based on an outdated mathematical apparatus.

Medler did not have the concept of "long calendar cycle" and "principle of calendar equivalence" (between the grid of days of the week from Sunday to Saturday, and the digital calendar series of calendar days from January 1 to December 31).

In principle, Medler did not have a mathematical model (formula) of the calendar (in particular, the Julian and Gregorian) and its digital 13-month form.

Medler and all his followers (in particular, Mendeleev, Idelson, and others) operated only with the analog 12-month (or 13-month) form of both the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

Mendeleev in 1899 officially proposed, within the framework of the Russian Academy of Sciences, to improve the 12-month Julian calendar in an analog version of I.G. Medler. But in 1907 Mendeleev died. And in 1914 the First World War began and his calendar project was forgotten.

An attempt to revive the ideas of Mendeleev-Medler was undertaken by Professor N.I. Idelson in 1925 in the book History of the Calendar. But his attempt to improve the 12-month analog calendar of Mädler came to a dead end, since he, like Mädler, did not find, in particular, a rule for agreeing the long (3200 years) and short (128 years) calendar cycles with each other.

Idelson's artificial combination of 33-year and 29-year cycles on a short calendar cycle of 128 years turned out to be ineffective and did not find wide application in calendar practice. The solution to the calendar problem (including the Julian calendar) was found in full by Morozov in 2015.

(Morozov S.L. Universal mathematical model for calculating the duration of a calendar year for all types of stock calendars. Calendar constant. Journal of CEMI RAS "Economics and Mathematical Methods" 2015. V. 51. No. 1. P. 109-129)


(Morozov S.L. Standard 13-month I. Medler - D.I. Mendeleev - S.L. Morozov standard calendar and its application for the industrialization of space society. Monograph - M .: LLC "VASH FORMAT", 2019. - 260 pp. (Rus). ISBN 978-5-907092-99-0)

The Asgardian Standards Institute (AIS) is the central metrology organization in Asgardia, which is responsible for all Asgardian standards. Standards for the Anthem, Coat of Arms and Flag of the State of Asgardia have been created.

We need a digital standard of the Cosmic Reference Calendar of Asgardia, as a uniform way of accounting for the annual time on Earth and in Space. Manned space exploration is impossible without such a digital reference standard.


This calendar is approved by the decrees of the state of Asgardia:

DECREE No 2 dated 09.03.0001 (06.03.2017) ASGARDIA THE SPACE NATION. Approved by the Parliament of Asgardia Virgo 13, 0003 // July 28, 2019.

DECREE No 38 On Giving Effect to the Calendar of Asgardia dated Capricornus 16, 0003 (December 18, 2019)

The Julian calendar, adopted by Julius Caesar

The Julian calendar, adopted by G.Yu. Caesar, as the state in Rome in 46 BC, lags behind the duration of the average tropical year of the Sun by 675 seconds per year (1/128 of a day) or 11 minutes 15 seconds per year, or 1.848 seconds per day.

(Part 4 - Year of the Star Sun)

Historically, the Julian calendar is the Egyptian analog calendar for the star Sirius (not the sun's star), invented in 238 BC. under Pharaoh Ptolemy III Evergete, a descendant of Alexander III of Macedon. Every fourth year in this analogue calendar was a leap year - the model of the length of the year: 365 (1/4) days, or 365 (100/400) days.

The Western Catholic Gregorian calendar of the Vatican in 1582 (with a leap formula of 97/400 days instead of 100/400 days) is a development of the Julian calendar and also lags behind the duration of the average tropical year of the Sun by 27 seconds per year (1/3200 of a day) or 0, 0002 seconds per day from the actual duration of the astronomical solar tropical year.

In total, about 40 calendars still exist in the world at the same time, and all of them are unsuitable for use as space calendars.

They are clerical, medieval, analogous and inaccurate to varying degrees in relation to the PTG - the duration of the average solar tropical year (both ahead and lagging behind), - for the first time accurately calculated in 1627 by astronomer I. Kepler: PTG = 365 (31 / 128) days = 365.2421875 days = 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 45 seconds = 31,556,925 seconds.

UTC calendar time

Today, precise time signals are transmitted to synchronize the same time on Earth by radio, television and via the Internet in the UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) system.

UTC time was introduced to replace the old Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The new UTC time scale was introduced because the GMT scale is irregular and related to the daily rotation of the Earth. UTC is based on the Uniform Atomic Time Scale (TAI) and is more convenient for civilian use.

The difference between Universal Time (UT1) and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), equal to: DUT1 = UT1 - UTC, is constantly monitored and published daily on the IERS website based on Bulletin A data.


The UTC scale has been introduced since 1964. It is a uniformly variable time scale (UTC), or Coordinated Universal Time, which links the UT1 (Observed Universal Time) scale and the strictly uniform International Atomic Time (TAI) scale. The scale of UTC and TAI is the same.

The discrepancy between UTC (TAI) and UT1 is gradually accumulating due, first, to the unevenness of the UT1 scale, and second, to the inequality of the UT1 and TAI scales (1 atomic second of TAI is "shorter" than the average 1 second on the UT1 scale).


With a gradual increase in the discrepancy between UTC (TAI) and UT1 to 0.9 s, the zero-point is adjusted in a jump - immediately by adding one (1) whole second.


This extra one second is added as needed on June 30 or December 31 after 23:59:59. The addition of the second corresponds to the display of the current time 23:59:60. The addition of a second is determined by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS), according to their observation of the planet's rotation.

Image above: Screenshot of the UTC clock from during the leap second on December 31, 2016. In the U.S., the leap second took place at 18:59:60 local time on the East Coast, at 15:59:60 local time on the West Coast, and at 13:59:60 local time in Hawaii.

Time zones around the world are expressed using positive or negative offsets with respect to UTC (TAI). The westernmost time zone uses UTC − 12, 12 hours behind, and the easternmost time zone uses UTC + 14, fourteen hours ahead of UTC.

UTC is used in many Internet standards. Network Time Protocol (NTP), designed to synchronize the clocks of computers over the Internet, transmits time information from the UTC (TAI) system. If millisecond (ms) precision is required, clients can get the current UTC from several official UTC internet servers. For microsecond accuracy, clients can receive time from satellites.


UTC is also the time standard used in aviation, for example for flight plans and air traffic control. Weather forecasts and maps use UTC to avoid confusion with time zones and daylight saving time. The International Space Station uses UTC as its time reference.

Today, there is no single digital civilian reference standard space calendar based on the atomic second TAI (UTC).

The first such official calendar is the digital calendar of the space state of Asgardia.


This digital calendar was first created on the basis of a mathematical model. It is a civil, standard reference calendar. Its accuracy will be ensured by a unique strontium atomic clock of internal stabilization, which has an error not exceeding ± 1 second in 15 billion years (approximately this amount of time has passed since the Big Bang and the creation of our Universe - 13.7 billion years).


According to the astrophysical cycle of the Earth's existence, it physically remains to exist for no more than 5.5 billion years.

(Part 2 - Astrophysical End of the World)

The proposed universal digital space Calendar and a clock based on it will deviate from the true value by no more than ± 1/3 of a second during this time.



If on Earth synchronization of all clocks is possible from one center of exact time, located, for example, in London or Paris, then in outer space this cannot be done in principle.

The propagation speed of the radio signal is 299 km / sec. The circumference of the Earth at the equator level is only 40,000 km. This is a very short distance compared to the speed of light. The radio signal reaches any point on the Earth's surface almost simultaneously (instantly) - "the principle of speed".

Therefore, on Earth, a single external simultaneous (at "sublight" speeds of movement) synchronization of all clocks from one center is possible.

But from the Earth to the Moon and back, the radio signal spends about 2.5-4 seconds on the passage. To Mars - from 3 to 22 minutes one way, depending on the distance between Mars and Earth.

Image above: The Soviet program for the study of the main natural satellite of the Earth began to be developed in 1966. It was then that the first sketches of future automatic devices for studying the moon appeared. Soon the name "Lunokhod" became known to the whole world. Remotely controlled vehicles transmitted images of the lunar surface and soil composition data to the ground. However, few people know that these machines were initially planned to be equipped with a space for an astronaut.

The beginning of the program dates back to the time of the Queen. The great designer managed to determine the general "ideology" of the lunar automatic station, the executors for the creation of its main components. But other people had to implement these projects. The Korolev case was continued by the chief designer of the NPO. Lavochkin Georgy Babakin.

The Soviet lunar program is divided into three main stages. The first stage is the creation of automatic stations of the first generation, capable of delivering a probe to the moon, orbiting an Earth satellite, taking photographs and sending them to the Mission Control Center.

The second stage - the device puts an artificial satellite into orbit around the Moon, makes a soft landing on the lunar surface, photographs, and goes into a stable connection with the Earth.

And, finally, the third stage is the delivery to the Earth satellite of automatic stations E-8 (lunar rovers), which are capable of moving along the lunar surface, analyzing the composition of the lunar soil, radioactive and X-ray radiation and other parameters.

The first "lunar tractor" weighed 756 kilograms. It was about two meters in height, the diameter of the wheels was about half a meter. The lunar rover was equipped with two television cameras, an X-ray spectrometer, an X-ray telescope, a radiation detector and other equipment. Lunokhod-2 differed from the first only in details. Its weight was 836 kilograms. The developers slightly changed the parameters of the TV camera and the design of the solar battery.

Lunokhod can be compared to a modern radio-controlled toy. Remote control, joystick, buttons - and command. However, it must be remembered that both Soviet lunar rovers moved on a completely new surface, unknown to any of the earthlings.

Lunokhod 1, which became the world's first rover, was delivered to the moon on November 17, 1970. During the operation of Lunokhod-1, 157 communication sessions with the Earth took place. The last communication session with the first lunar rover took place on September 14, 1971.

Lunokhod-2 was delivered to the Earth satellite on January 15, 1973. The landing site was the Lemonnier crater. Lunokhod-2 worked for 4 months. During this time, he walked 42 kilometers and transmitted more than 80 thousand television frames to Earth.

The next lunar rover was already Chinese, and it ended up on the Earth's satellite only in 2013.

The main difficulty was that the signal, due to a distance of 400,000 kilometers, was 4 seconds behind. In addition, as Vyacheslav Dovgan, the pilot of Lunhod-1, recalls, due to the peculiarities of the then television, each frame froze on the screen for almost 20 seconds. But the lunar rover continued to move all this time!

Despite all these difficulties, the crews achieved masterly possession of lunar transport. And they even made their ladies an unusual gift - on March 8, 1970, they found a flat area on the lunar surface and wrote a huge eight on it with the wheels of the lunar rover.

If several spaceships fly simultaneously even only in the solar system: some to Mars, some to the Moon, some to Jupiter, etc. - the control signal from the Earth will reach them at different times and, in principle, there can be no question of any simultaneity and synchronicity of this event. When reaching the "near-light" velocities, an automatic relativistic correction will be introduced.

Therefore, a single external common synchronization of clocks in different spaceships is impossible. An individual internal (intra-ship) synchronization of all clocks will be needed based on the proposed space calendar of Asgardia, equipped with a strontium atomic clock of internal stabilization (or their analogs).


Center for deep space communications "Pluto". Calendar astronavigation and astrodynamics in the solar system at the Mission Control Center (MCC)

Antennas of the Pluto Center for Deep Space Communication.

The Pluto Center for Long-Range Space Communication was launched back in 1960 in Evpatoria in the USSR and was intended to measure the trajectory of motion (astronavigation) and control space objects (astrodynamics) at large distances.

Already in the year of the first manned flight into space, scientists of the USSR were building grandiose plans:

1. Launching scientific systems into the orbit of the Moon and for landing on its surface, it was planned to use television equipment to transmit color images.

2. Implementation of safe dispatch and disembarkation of a person on the lunar surface.

3. Sending automatic interplanetary stations to planets such as Venus and Mars for landing on them and photographing.

4. Invention of two-way radio communication with interplanetary stations within the boundaries of the planetary system.

5. Construction of systems for providing telephone and photo telegraph communication with the personnel of manned vehicles at a distance of up to 1 billion km (to the orbit of Jupiter).


The standard benchmarks of the Asgardian calendar to be formally protected by the Asgardian Standards Institute (AIS) are as follows:


1). Mathematical model (formula) of the space calendar.

A single universal universal mathematical model (formula) for calculating the duration of a tropical year (L) for all existing types of calendars is as follows:

L = (integer part) + (fractional part) = CONST + const;

L = K + [α + (± β)] = K + μ, = K + KP = 365+ μ,

where "L" is the total duration of the tropical year in whole numbers and fractions of a day;

"K" = CONST - the basic length of the year in whole numbers of days (for the conditions of the planet Earth, "K" is "365 days");

"α" - the accuracy of the calendar,

“± β” is the value of the system error.

"μ"= α + (± β)" = KP - the universal standard "Morozov calendar constant" (or the universal standard calendar constant for any rotating cosmic subject, such as: a planet, satellite, star, galaxy, galaxy system - orbiting some center of mass)

"μ" is always a constant value, a standard, which is calculated as a simple sum of the accuracy coefficient "α" and the system error "± β" for a given space object.

The universal standard "Morozov calendar constant" is a new cosmological parameter of "calendar astronomy" that characterizes the movement of time on any particular space object (satellite, planet, star, galaxy, group of galaxies), which revolve around a common center of rotation (center of mass).

The numerical value of the Morozov calendar constant for planet Earth is (with an accuracy of 7 decimal places) "calendar constant" [CP]: CP = μ = const = α + (± β) = 31/128 = 0.2421875 days = 5 hours 48 minutes 45 seconds (per year);

It is obvious that: [α + (± β)] - μ = 0.

The universal reference standard "calendar constant Morozov" (calendar reference standard), introduced by the author for the first time, has the same meaning for the theory of the calendar as the Hubble constant, or Boltzmann's constant, or Planck's constant for theoretical quantum physics, or the constancy of the speed of light in the theory of relativity, or Avogadro's number in chemistry.

2). 128-year cycles, into which the entire time axis with a singular reference point is divided, starting from January 1, 2013, is a singular point (special reference point) for all 128-year cycles of the tropical mathematical matrix of the solar calendar of Asgardia.

Short cycle (128 years).

Long cycle (3200 years = 25 short cycles).

3). One calendar day in Asgardia contains 24 hours, 60 minutes in each and 60 seconds in 1 minute. One calendar day in Asgardia contains 86,400 seconds.

4). The cosmic calendar of Asgardia is a solar calendar. The average length of the estimated calendar year of Asgardia is exactly equal to the average duration of the real astronomical tropical year of the Sun: 365 (31/128) days = 365.2421875 days = 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 45 seconds = 31,556,925 seconds.

In other words, to have an accurate average tropical solar calendar, you need to use 31 leap years for every 128 years of the calendar cycle.

Therefore, the Asgardian calendar has no error in relation to the length of the average tropical solar year. He is perfectly accurate and equal to him.

5). Each 365th day in a non-leap year is an "Extra Day" [ED] 29 Capricornus (December 31st of each non-leap year in the Gregorian calendar).

6). Every 366th day of a leap year is an Extra Day Duplicate [EDD] 30 Capricornus (December 31st of each Gregorian leap year).

7). The extra days [day 365 and day 366] are conditionally incomplete week 53.

8). The frequency of "Duplicate extra days" [EDD] is determined by the "Calendar constant (constant) of Morozov" [31/128 days = 0.2421875 days = 5 hours 48 minutes 45 seconds = 20 925 seconds].

Therefore, unlike the Gregorian calendar, every 3200th year since 1600 (e.g. 4800th) is a common year.

9). Each Leap Year Extra Day [ED] and every Leap Year Extra Day Duplicate [EDD] follows before Sunday, the first day of the first month of the new year: 1 Aquarius [Jan 1].

10). The ISO 8601/2004 date format standard for a time reference (timestamp) consisting of 8 groups (YYYY-MM-DD-T-hh-mm-ss + ms) has been replaced with a new full reference (timestamp) format consisting of of 9 groups: ZCYAMDWdT - (see below).


(The standard ISO 8601/2004 date format for the time reference (stamp) consisting of 8 groups (YYYY-MM-DD-T-hh-mm-ss + ms) replaced with a new full-time reference (stamp) format consisting of 9 groups: ZCYAMDWdT - (see below).

11). When counting the number of days in a week, Sunday is always counted as the first day of the week.

12). For each cycle of 128 years, only two types of calendar (template, matrix) are used: leap and non-leap (simple), which themselves differ only in the number of days off on New Year's holidays (three days off in a "leap" year and two days off in "common"). In all other respects, both calendar matrices are completely identical.

13). The short form for recording the date: "Virgo 13, 0003 // July 28, 2019".

14). In the space calendar of Asgardia, the "principle of calendar equivalence" is used. It regulates the relationship between the grid of days of the week (from Sunday to Saturday), and the series of numbers for the days of the year (for each month, specifically, from 1 to 365 days in a regular year, and from 1 to 366 days in a leap year). These transformations are astronomically equivalent, but have different economic impacts.

The space calendar on a cycle of 128 years in paper version does not need to be reprinted annually. The economic effect is calculated annually in billions of dollars.

The matrix of the 12-month Gregorian calendar is compared with the 13-month matrix of the actual cosmic calendar in one block throughout the year (from January 1 to December 31 according to the Gregorian calendar).

In the proposed digital space calendar of Asgardia, the grid of days of the week of the Gregorian calendar (from Sunday to Saturday), highlighted in gray, is shifted by one position per year every non-leap year - and immediately by two positions per year after each leap year, - with constancy (immobility ) of the digital series of the days of the calendar (from the first to the last day of the month and year).

In traditional analog medieval calendars, on the contrary: the digital series of days of the calendar (from the first to the last day of the month and year) is shifted in a similar way by one position per year every non-leap year - and immediately by two positions per year - after each leap year, - and the grid of days of the week (from Sunday to Saturday) remains fixed (constant).

15). The Asgardia calendar is the standard reference civil 13-month digital calendar. The start date of the creation of the calendar countdown is January 1, 2017 according to the Gregorian calendar.

16). The calendar has 13 months corresponding to the order of the zodiac signs on the ecliptic of the Sun: I) Aquarius [Aquarius], II) Pisces [Pisces], III) Aries [Aries], IV) Taurus [Taurus], V) Gemini [Gemini], VI) Cancer, VII) Leo [Leo], VIII) Virgo, IX) Libra [Libra], X) Scorpio [Scorpio], XI) Serpentarium [Ophiuchus (Apheuhus) or Serpentarius], XII) Sagittarius [Sagittarius ], XIII) Capricorn [Capricornus].

17). Each calendar month contains 28 days.

18). Each quarter has 91 days.

19). The main (base, anchor) year (364 days) consists of 52 full standard reference weeks, with a constant duration of 7 days.

20). The calendar program is designed to be used between 30500 BC. and 33500 AD (time span of 64,000 years or 640 centuries). If necessary, this range can be increased purely mathematically indefinitely from "minus" to "plus" infinity.

21). 7-position calendar, - these 7 (seven) positions are as follows: "Calendar; Date converter; Cycle; Monthly calendar; Year chart; Time stamp; Day".

22). There is an automatic copying of the timestamp: "Copy to clipboard", which is uniquely important for all systems with calculations on blockchains, as well as for all systems of data archiving and statistics, for all systems for automatic processing of large and extra-large databases.

All birth control pills are designed for a 28-day cycle.

23). All combined oral hormonal contraceptives are taken cyclically. The duration of the cycle is always equal to one obstetric (lunar) month, and is 28 days. The cosmic calendar in this regard is an ideal purely "feminine" calendar.

Traditionally, during long missions, female astronauts take a combination of pills called combined oral contraceptives. It is a hormonal drug that suppresses the onset of menstruation by inhibiting the development and release of the egg.


For research missions in the near future, which will last at least three years, women will need to take approximately 1,100 tablets with them.

The proposed space calendar is very convenient for female astronauts using birth control pills in space, since it has exactly 28 days in each month.


24). National holidays of the state of Asgardia:

I. Asgardia's birthday is "5 Ophiuchus" (October 12 of each common year and October 11 of each leap year in the Gregorian calendar).

II. Asgardian Constitution Day [Asgardian National Unity Day] - "1 Leo" (June 18 in a common year and June 17 in a leap year in the Gregorian calendar).

III. Days of the year are every 365 days of a common year (29 Capricornus; December 31st in the Gregorian calendar) and every 365 and 366 days in a leap year (29 Capricornus and 30 Capricornus; December 30 and 31 in the Gregorian calendar).

25). ORDER No. 2 of 09.03.0001 (06.03.2017) OF THE SPACE STATE ASGARDIA Approved by the Parliament of Asgardia Virgo 13, 0003 // July 28, 2019.

26). DECREE No. 38 On the implementation of the Asgardia calendar dated 16 Capricornus 0003 (December 18, 2019).

27). DECREE No 2 dated 09.03.0001 (06.03.2017) ASGARDIA THE SPACE NATION. Approved by the Parliament of Asgardia Virgo 13, 0003 // July 28, 2019.

28). DECREE No 38 On Giving Effect to the Calendar of Asgardia dated Capricornus 16, 0003 (December 18, 2019)

29). For more information on the Asgardian calendar, see the following article:

Sergei L Morozov. Asgardia’s calendar and its role in space industrialization strategy. ROOM, Space Journal of Asgardia, Autumn # 3 (21) 2019, pp. 66-72.




Part 1 - Biblical End of the World

Part 2 - Astrophysical End of the World

Part 3 - Geochronological Ice Ages, periods, eras

Part 4 - Biological End of the World

Part 15 - Apocalypse. View from the UK

Image above: Place of the Sun and Solar System in the Milky Way Galaxy. Photo taken by The Russian orbital observatory Spektr-RG scans the Universe.



Image above: Jeff Bezos, Sir Richard Branson and Elon Musk are the leaders of the most successful private space investments and projects.



(Morozov S.L. Ideology of space expansion. Journal "Aerospace Sphere" (VKS) №1 (98), 2019, pp. 50-61)


"The super-large spacecraft can become the main strategic aerospace equipment for the future use of space resources, the study of the mysteries of the universe and long stay in orbit."








Part 15 - Apocalypse. View from the UK

Sergey Lvovich Morozov - the author of the Asgardian space calendar (

Author: Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich

Read the full cycle "Exodus of civilization into space" in more detail (in Russian):

Part 1 - Biblical End of the World

Part 2 - Astrophysical End of the World

Part 3 - Geochronological Ice Ages, periods, eras

Part 4 - Biological End of the World

Part 5 - Space man

Part 6 - The sixth socio-economic formation of civilization

Part 7 - Stopping the process of increasing value added

Part 8 - Symbol of the End of the XXI century

Part 9 - Tsiolkovsky Galactic State

Part 10 - Extraterrestrial Astronautical Socio-Economic formation

Part 11 - Noosphere of Vernadsky's Universe

Part 12 - Darwinian evolution of the species "Homo sapiens" in the Universe

Part 13 - Why the USSR lost the race for the moon to the USA

Part 14 - Creation of a space industry on the Moon - Comparison of plans of NASA and Roscosmos

Part 15 - Apocalypse. View from the UK

Part 16 - Creation of the first ever homeostatic ark (HA) in the USA

Part 17 - SELENIC STRATEGY or the creation of stationary and mobile Homeostatic arks


Part 19 - Has the US decided to overtake China? "Plus the renewable electrification of the whole country?" ISS-2

Read more about the full cycle "Space Calendar":

Part 1 - Space calendar.

Part 2 - Evolution of calendars

Part 3 - Why the pyramids were created in Egypt

Part 4 - Year of the Star Sun

Part 5 - The Cosmic Doctrine of Civilization. Space calendar of Asgardia.

List of publications on orbiterchspacenews (

Exodus of civilization into space - The US decided to overtake China? "Plus the renewable electrification of the whole country?". Part 19.1

Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - UN Ideology in the XXI Century? Part 18.1.2

Exodus of civilization into space - Homeostatic Ark & Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars. Part 18.5

Exodus of civilization into space - American Jobs Plan. Part 18.4

Exodus of civilization into space - The space age of civilization began its new Third stage (civil). Part 18.3

Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - Ideology of the UN in the XXI Century. Part 18.2

Exodus of civilization into space - Selenic Strategy - UN Ideology in the XXI Century. Part 18.1

Space Toilet and Problems of Intestinal Stick Infection. Part 17.7

Three Historical Stages of Cosmonautics Development. Part 17.6

Brief Background to Selenopolitics (Industrial Colonization of the Moon). Part 17.5

Exodus of civilization into space - Creation of the first ever mobile homeostatic ark (HA) in the USA. Part 16

Exodus of civilization into space - Apocalypse; View from the UK. Part 15

Exodus of civilization into space - Comparison of plans of NASA and Roscosmos. Part 14

The ideology of space expansion - The question of pregnancy and childbirth in zero gravity. Part 17.4

Colonization of the Moon - The source of the power, wealth and power of civilization in the Universe. Part 17.3

Space manned industrialization of the XXI century - the golden age of civilization. Part 17.2

Exodus of civilization into space - Humanity's strategy to create stationary and mobile Homeostatic arks. Part 17.1

Exodus of civilization into space - Tsiolkovsky Galactic State. Part 9

Exodus of civilization into space - Symbol of the End of the XXI century. Part 8

Exodus of civilization into space - Stopping the process of increasing value added. Part 7

Exodus of civilization into space - The sixth socio-economic formation of civilization. Part 6

Exodus of civilization into space - Space man. Part 5

Exodus of civilization into space - Biological End of the World. Part 4

Exodus of civilization into space - Geochronological Ice Ages, periods, eras. Part 3

Exodus of civilization into space - Astrophysical End of the World. Part 2

The ideology of space expansion - Space calendar. Part 1

Related links:

About Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich:

Original article in Russian on Zen.Yandex:

Asgardia website:

Author: Ph.D. Morozov Sergey Lvovich / Zen.Yandex. Editor / Translation: Aerospace, by Roland Berga (Asgardia AMP).

Best regards,